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H.-E. Lee, Y.Su. Kim, J.K. Park and S.-T. Oh

Abstract

Microstructure evolution of Ni-based oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy powders with milling time is investigated. The elemental powders having a nominal composition of Ni-15Cr-4.5Al-4W-2.5Ti-2Mo-2Ta-0.15Zr-1.1Y2O3 in wt % were ball-milled by using horizontal rotary ball milling with the change of milling velocity. Microstructure observation revealed that large aggregates were formed in the early stages of ball milling, and further milling to 5 h decreased particle size. The average crystalline size, estimated by the peak broadening of XRD, decreased from 28 nm to 15 nm with increasing milling time from 1 h to 5 h. SEM and EPMA analysis showed that the main elements of Ni and Cr were homogeneously distributed inside the powders after ball milling of 5 h.

Open access

S.H. Choi, B. Ali, K.S. Choi, S.K. Hyun, J.J. Sim, W.J. Choi, W. Joo, J.H. Lim, T.H. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

Although TiNb2O7 is regarded as a material with high application potential in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), it has been difficult to find suitable cost-effective conditions for synthesizing it on a commercial scale. In this study, TiNb2O7 compounds were synthesized by a solid state synthesis process. For stoichiometrically precise synthesis of the TiNb2O7 phase, the starting materials, TiO2 and Nb2O5 were taken in a 1:1 molar ratio. Activation energy and reaction kinetics of the system were investigated at various synthesis temperatures (800,1000,1200, and 1400°C) and for various holding durations (1,5,10, and 20 h). Furthermore, change in the product morphology and particle size distribution were also evaluated as a function of synthesis temperature and duration. Additionally, quantitative phase analysis was conducted using the Rietveld refinement method. It was found that increases in the synthesis temperature and holding time lead to increase in the mean particle size from 1 to 4.5 μm. The reaction rate constant for the synthesis reaction was also calculated.

Open access

B. Ali, S.H. Choi, S.J. Seo, D.Y. Maeng, C.G. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

The water atomization of iron powder with a composition of Fe-3Cr-0.5Mo (wt.%) at 1600°C and 150 bar creates an oxide layer, which in this study was reduced using a mixture of methane (CH4) and argon (Ar) gas. The lowest oxygen content was achieved with a 100 cc/min flow rate of CH4, but this also resulted in a co-deposition of carbon due to the cracking of CH4. This carbon can be used directly to create high-quality, sinter hardenable steel, thereby eliminating the need for an additional mixing step prior to sintering. An exponential relationship was found to exist between the CH4 gas flow rate and carbon content of the powder, meaning that its composition can be easily controlled to suit a variety of different applications.

Open access

S.H. Choi, B. Ali, S.K. Hyun, J.J. Sim, W.J. Choi, W. Joo, J.H. Lim, Y.J. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

Combustion synthesis is capable of producing many types of refractory and ceramic materials, as well as metals, with a relatively lower cost and shorter time frame than other solid state synthetic techniques. TiO2 with Mg as reductant were dry mixed and hand compacted into a 60 mm diameter mold and then combusted under an Ar atmosphere. Depending on the reaction parameters (Mg concentration 2 ≤ α ≤ 4), the thermocouples registered temperatures between 1160°C and 1710°C · 3 mol of Mg gave the optimum results with combustion temperature (Tc) and combustion velocity (Uc) values of 1372°C and 0.26 cm/s respectively. Furthermore, this ratio also had the lowest oxygen concentration in this study (0.8 wt%). After combustion, DC plasma treatment was carried out to spheroidize the Ti powder for use in 3D printing. The characterization of the final product was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and N/O analysis.