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Open access

S.S. Kim, I. Son and K.T. Kim

Abstract

In the present study, electroless Ni–P plating was applied to Bi–Te-based thermoelectric materials as a barrier layer and the effect of the Ni–P plating on the bonding strength of the thermoelectric module was investigated. The bonding strength of the n- and p-type modules increased after being subjected to the electroless Ni–P plating treatment. In the case of the thermoelectric module that was not subjected to electroless Ni–P plating, Sn and Te were interdiffused and formed a brittle Sn–Te-based metallic compound. The shearing mostly occurred on the bonding interface where such an intermetallic compound was formed. On the other hands, it was found from the FE-EPMA analysis of the bonding interface of thermoelectric module subjected to electroless Ni-P plating that the electroless Ni-P plating acted as an anti-diffusion layer, preventing the interdiffusion of Sn and Te. Therefore, by forming such an anti-diffusion layer on the surface of the Bi–Te based thermoelectric element, the bonding strength of the thermoelectric module could be increased.

Open access

K.-W. Kim, K.-S. Oh, H. Lee, B.-S. Kim and T.-J. Chung

Abstract

Two-step sintering route was applied for the densification SiC by promoting the role of liquid phase. The specimen contained 8 vol% of liquid phase composed of Al2O3 and Y2O3. The heating schedule consisted with initial rapid heating to 2000°C and immediate quenching to 1700 or 1750°C. By heating at elevated temperature, even distribution of the liquid phase was intended. The heat treatment at reduced temperature was to suppress the evaporative loss of the liquid and to secure the time for densification. The two-step sintering effectively suppressed loss of mass and coarsening. The resultant SiC was thus dense and was composed of fine grains exhibiting hardness of 2321 kgf/mm2.

Open access

D.H. Shim, S.S. Jung, H.S. Kim, H. Cho, J.K. Kim, T.G. Kim and S.J. Yoon

Abstract

Zirconia matrix ZrO2/CNT composite materials reinforced with multiwall carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a spark plasma sintering technique. The effects of the amount of CNTs addition, sintering temperature and sintering pressure on the properties of the resulting ZrO2/CNT composites were examined. 0 to 9 vol. % CNTs were dispersed in zirconia powder, and the resulting mixture was sintered. The electrical conductivity, hardness, flexural strength, and density were measured to characterize the composites. The friction and wear properties of the composites were also tested. The flexural strength and friction coefficient of the composites were improved with up to 6 vol.% of CNT addition and the flexural strength showed a close relationship with the relative density of the composite. The electrical conductivity increased with increasing proportion of the CNTs, but the efficiency was reduced at more than 6 vol.% CNTs.

Open access

K.Ch. Jeon, Y.D. Kim, M.-J. Suk and S.-T. Oh

Abstract

Porous Ti with controlled pore structure was fabricated by thermal decomposition and sintering process using TiH2 powders and Polymethylmethacrylates (PMMA) beads as pore forming agent. The beads sizes of 8 and 50 μm were used as a template for fabricating the porous Ti. The TiH2 powder compacts with 20 and 70 vol% PMMA were prepared by uniaxial pressing and sintered for 2 h at 1100°C. TGA analysis revealed that the PMMA and TiH2 were thermally decomposed at about 400°C forming pores and at about 600°C into metallic Ti phase. The porosity increased with increase in the amount of PMMA addition. Also, the microstructure observation showed that the pore size and shape were strongly dependent on the PMMA shapes.

Open access

H.-E. Lee, Y.Su. Kim, J.K. Park and S.-T. Oh

Abstract

Microstructure evolution of Ni-based oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy powders with milling time is investigated. The elemental powders having a nominal composition of Ni-15Cr-4.5Al-4W-2.5Ti-2Mo-2Ta-0.15Zr-1.1Y2O3 in wt % were ball-milled by using horizontal rotary ball milling with the change of milling velocity. Microstructure observation revealed that large aggregates were formed in the early stages of ball milling, and further milling to 5 h decreased particle size. The average crystalline size, estimated by the peak broadening of XRD, decreased from 28 nm to 15 nm with increasing milling time from 1 h to 5 h. SEM and EPMA analysis showed that the main elements of Ni and Cr were homogeneously distributed inside the powders after ball milling of 5 h.

Open access

Y.-K. Jeong, Y.S. Kim and S.-T. Oh

Abstract

An optimum route to fabricate the Cu-based SiC composites with homogeneous microstructure was investigated. Three methods for developing the densified composites with sound interface between Cu and SiC were compared on the basis of the resulting microstructures. Starting with three powder mixtures of elemental Cu and SiC, elemental Cu and PCS coated SiC or PCS and Cunitrate coated SiC was used to obtain Cu-based SiC composites. SEM analysis revealed that the composite fabricated by spark plasma sintering using elemental SiC and Cu powder mixture showed inhomogeneous microstructure. Conversely, dense microstructure with sound interface was observed in the sintered composites using powder mixture of pre-coated PCS and Cu-nitrate onto SiC. The relationship between powder processing and microstructure was discussed based on the role of coating layer for the wettability

Open access

Y. B. Koo, J. K. Yeo, K. S. Woo and T. S. Kim

Abstract

Stability parameters and clone x site interactions for 12-year volume were investigated in seven Populus davidiana (Korean aspen) clonal trials in South Korea. Either 24 or 38 clones were tested in each of the seven sites. All sources of variables such as clone, site, and clone x site interaction were statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the analysis of variance. The average volume of 3,199 trees was 0.043 m3. The different types of stability were shown from selected clones against the test means for volume. Clone Palkong 2 represents a relatively unstable clone that is sensitive to site changes and had greater adaptability to favorable sites. Five clones, Odae 19, Taehyun 9, Sunyeo 4, Sokwang 31, and Taehyun 3, were selected as superior clones based on stability parameters and mean volume. The selected clones have average stability and performed in a predictable manner over different planting sites. A positive relationship between stability parameters and the clone mean performance for volume was noted in this study.

Open access

M.-W. Lee, K.-H. Bae, S.-R. Lee, H.-J. Kim and T.-S. Jang

Abstract

We investigated the microstructural and magnetic property changes of DyCo, Cu + DyCo, and Al + DyCo diffusion-treated NdFeB sintered magnets. The coercivity of all diffusion treated magnet was increased at 880ºC of 1st post annealing(PA), by 6.1 kOe in Cu and 7.0 kOe in Al mixed DyCo coated magnets, whereas this increment was found to be relatively low (3.9 kOe) in the magnet coated with DyCo only. The diffusivity and diffusion depth of Dy were increased in those magnets which were treated with Cu or Al mixed DyCo, mainly due to comparatively easy diffusion path provided by Cu and Al because of their solubility with Ndrich grain boundary phase. The formation of Cu/Al-rich grain boundary phase might have enhanced the diffusivity of Dy-atoms. Moreover, relatively a large number of Dy atoms reached into the magnet and mostly segregated at the interface of Nd2Fe14B and grain boundary phases covering Nd2Fe14B grains so that the core-shell type structures were developed. The formation of highly anisotropic (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B phase layer, which acted as the shell in the core-shell type structure so as to prevent the reverse domain movement, was the cause of enhancing the coercivity of diffusion treated NdFeB magnets. Segregation of cobalt in Nd-rich TJP followed by the formation of Co-rich phase was beneficial for the coercivity enhancement, resulting in the stabilization of the metastable c-Nd2O3 phase.

Open access

S.H. Choi, B. Ali, K.S. Choi, S.K. Hyun, J.J. Sim, W.J. Choi, W. Joo, J.H. Lim, T.H. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

Although TiNb2O7 is regarded as a material with high application potential in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), it has been difficult to find suitable cost-effective conditions for synthesizing it on a commercial scale. In this study, TiNb2O7 compounds were synthesized by a solid state synthesis process. For stoichiometrically precise synthesis of the TiNb2O7 phase, the starting materials, TiO2 and Nb2O5 were taken in a 1:1 molar ratio. Activation energy and reaction kinetics of the system were investigated at various synthesis temperatures (800,1000,1200, and 1400°C) and for various holding durations (1,5,10, and 20 h). Furthermore, change in the product morphology and particle size distribution were also evaluated as a function of synthesis temperature and duration. Additionally, quantitative phase analysis was conducted using the Rietveld refinement method. It was found that increases in the synthesis temperature and holding time lead to increase in the mean particle size from 1 to 4.5 μm. The reaction rate constant for the synthesis reaction was also calculated.

Open access

B. Ali, S.H. Choi, S.J. Seo, D.Y. Maeng, C.G. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

The water atomization of iron powder with a composition of Fe-3Cr-0.5Mo (wt.%) at 1600°C and 150 bar creates an oxide layer, which in this study was reduced using a mixture of methane (CH4) and argon (Ar) gas. The lowest oxygen content was achieved with a 100 cc/min flow rate of CH4, but this also resulted in a co-deposition of carbon due to the cracking of CH4. This carbon can be used directly to create high-quality, sinter hardenable steel, thereby eliminating the need for an additional mixing step prior to sintering. An exponential relationship was found to exist between the CH4 gas flow rate and carbon content of the powder, meaning that its composition can be easily controlled to suit a variety of different applications.