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Open access

M. Jusoh, Z. Abbas, K. Lee, K. You and A. Norimi

Determination of Moisture Content in Mortar at Near Relaxation Frequency 17 GHz

The knowledge of moisture content in cement based material is important especially for the safety in field work. In this paper, a non-destructive and contactless free space method is used for measurement of moisture content in cement based materials (mortar) at microwave frequencies. The measurement system consists of a 17 GHz dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) as a microwave source, a Power Meter as the detector, and a pair of lens horn antennas to transmit and receive the microwave signal. An empirical formula of moisture content was obtained by using a relationship between attenuation and moisture content. This model is best for prediction of moisture content greater than 2% with percentage mean error of 3%.

Open access

A. Mori, K. Ueda, P. Lee, H. Oda, K. Ishioka and T. Sako

Abstract

Carbohydrate is an important source of energy, which can significantly affect postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels in cats. In healthy animals, this is not a big concern; however, in obese and diabetic animals, this is an important detail. In the present study, the impact of four different carbohydrate sources (glucose, maltose, corn starch, and trehalose) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations was investigated with four obese cats. Each of the carbohydrate sources was added to a commercial wet food diet for feeding the animals. A significant difference was observed in postprandial glucose, insulin, and NEFA area under the curve (AUC) values between each carbohydrate source in obese cats. Furthermore, glucose and maltose induced the highest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC values, whereas trehalose induced the lowest postprandial glucose and insulin AUC value amongst all carbohydrate sources, respectively, in obese cats. However, trehalose has a higher risk of inducing side effects, such as diarrhea, as compared to other carbohydrate sources. As such, different carbohydrate sources appear to have a very significant impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels in obese cats. These results might be useful when selecting a prescription diet for obese or diabetic cats. In addition, maltose appears to be capable of inducing experimentally evoked postprandial hyperglycemia in obese cats, which may serve as a good tool for use to check the impact and effectiveness of newly developed oral hypoglycemic drugs or supplements for cats in future experiments.

Open access

Y.-K. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Gwon and K.-A. Lee

Abstract

This study attempted to manufacture an ODS alloy by combining multiple milling processes in mechanical alloying stage to achieve high strength and fracture elongation. The complex milling process of this study conducted planetary ball milling, cryogenic ball milling and drum ball milling in sequential order, and then the microstructure and tensile deformation behavior were investigated after additional heat treatment. The oxide particles distributed within the microstructure were fine oxide particles of 5~20 nm and coarse oxide particles of 100~200 nm, and the oxide particles were confirmed to be composed of Cr, Ti, Y and O. Results of tensile tests at room temperature measured yield strength, tensile strength and elongation as 1320 MPa, 2245 MPa and 4.2%, respectively, before heat treatment, and 1161 MPa, 2020 MPa and 5.5% after heat treatment. This results indicate that the ODS alloy of this study gained very high strengths compared to other known ODS alloys, allowing greater plastic zones.

Open access

B.-H. Kang, M.-H. Park and K.-A. Lee

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of strut thickness on the room and high temperature compressive properties of block-type Ni-Cr-Al powder porous metals with ~3000 μm pore size manufactured using a new powder process. Two block-type Ni-Cr-Al porous metals with different strut thicknesses were manufactured. The strut thicknesses of two block foams were 340 μm (A) and 383 μm (B), respectively. Room temperature, 500°C, 650°C and 800°C compressive tests were performed. The compressive results identified typical elastic, plateau and densification regions of foam material in all temperature conditions. Regardless of the strut thickness, compressive strength (maximum peak stress) decreased as deformation temperature increased. In all deformation temperature ranges, the compressive strength measured higher in the porous metal with greater strut thickness (B). The high temperature deformation behavior of powder porous metal was confirmed to be affected by the structural factor and microstructural factor of the porous metal. With the findings described above, this study also discussed the high temperature deformation mechanism of the Ni-Cr-Al metal foam based on fracture surfaces after the high temperature compressions.

Open access

G.-S. Ham, S.-H. Kim, J.-Y. Park and K.-A. Lee

Abstract

This study investigated the high temperature oxidation property of SiC coated layer fabricated by aerosol deposition process. SiC coated layer could be successfully manufactured by using pure SiC powders and aerosol deposition on the Zr based alloy in an optimal process condition. The thickness of manufactured SiC coated layer was measured about 5 μm, and coating layer represented high density structure. SiC coated layer consisted of α-SiC and β-SiC phases, the same as the initial powder. The initial powder was shown to have been crushed to the extent and was deposited in the form of extremely fine particles. To examine the high temperature oxidation properties, oxidized weight gain was obtained for one hour at 1000°C by using TGA. The SiC coated layer showed superior oxidation resistance property than that of Zr alloy (substrate). The high temperature oxidation mechanism of SiC coated layer on Zr alloy was suggested. And then, the application of aerosol deposited SiC coated layer was also discussed.

Open access

J. Park, K.H. Jung, G.A. Lee, M. Kawasaki and B. Ahn

Abstract

In this study, a continuously casted ZK60A magnesium alloy (Mg-Zn-Zr) was extruded in two different extrusion ratios, 6:1 and 10:1. The evolution of precipitates was investigated on the two extruded materials and compared with that of as-casted material. The microstructural analysis was performed by electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the compositional information was obtained using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Several distinct morphologies of precipitates were observed, such as dot, rod, and disk shaped. The formation mechanisms of those precipitates were discussed with respect to the heat and strain during the extrusion process.

Open access

K.-A. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, J.-H. Yu, S.-H. Park and M.-C. Kim

Abstract

This study manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy using one of the powder bed fusion 3D-printing processes, selective laser melting, and investigated the effect of heat treatment (650°C/3hrs) on microstructure and impact toughness of the material. Initial microstructural observation identified prior-β grain along the building direction before and after heat treatment. In addition, the material formed a fully martensite structure before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, α and β phase were formed simultaneously. Charpy impact tests were conducted. The average impact energy measured as 6.0 J before heat treatment, and after heat treatment, the average impact energy increased by approximately 20% to 7.3 J. Fracture surface observation after the impact test showed that both alloys had brittle characteristics on macro levels, but showed ductile fracture characteristics and dimples at micro levels.

Open access

H. S. Dungey, C. B. Low, J. Lee, M. A. Miller, K. Fleet and A. D. Yanchuk

Abstract

Genetic improvement of Douglas-fir in New Zealand was initiated in 1955 with large provenance trials established in the late 1950’s. These trials illustrated that material from the coast of Oregon and California grew faster than other provenances tested. Further collections were made to evaluate provenance and familylevel performance from these two areas, and in 1996 additional trials were established at four low-altitude sites across New Zealand. Genotype×environment (GxE) interaction among these sites was found to be important for diameter at breast height (DBH), less important for stem straightness and malformation and not important for outerwood acoustic velocity (a surrogate for wood stiffness). Heritabilities were low to moderate for all growth traits, and very low for malformation. Heritability for needle cast due to Swiss needle cast, measured as needle retention on the one site where infection was relatively high, was moderate at 0.37, and was likely a major factor creating GxE interactions for growth among sites. The heritability of wood acoustic velocity was moderate to high at individual sites (0.26-0.74) and across sites (0.49). Individual- trait selection revealed the potential for good genetic gains to be made when selecting the top 20 families for diameter growth (an average of 10.7%), straightness (an average of 11.5%) and acoustic velocity (an average of 7.0%). When we examined predicted genetic gains while selecting for needle retention and/or DBH, we found that selecting for needle cast at the affected site did not compromise DBH gains at that site. Selecting for genotypes with low needle cast at the affected site did, however, reduce gains for DBH estimated across all sites. In order to maximise gains across the current Douglas-fir growing estate, a division of growing sites between those known and predicted to be affected by needle cast and those not affected would seem appropriate. This is particularly relevant given recent climate modelling work suggests that Swiss needle cast will become more important in the South Island, and even more destructive in the North Island of New Zealand. We suggest addressing differences in site through the development of separate deployment populations.

Open access

A. Di Salvo, M. Giorgi, H.K. Lee, C. Vercelli, F. Rueca, M. Trabalza Marinucci and G. della Rocca

Abstract

Sheep are often subjected to painful procedures and thus they need to be treated with analgesics. Nevertheless, knowledges about pharmacokinetic features of these drugs in this species are poor. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma behaviour of cimicoxib in sheep after a single oral administration at two different dose rates (4 and 6 mg/kg). Maximum plasma concentrations of cimicoxib were equal to 273.78 (median value; range 189.00-567.32) and 565.01 (range 308.27-822.59) ng/mL after treatment with 4 and 6 mg/kg, respectively. The time of maximum concentration (Tmax) was achieved between 4 and 10 hours following treatment at the lower dose, and between 6 and 10 hours after the administration of the higher dose, with one sheep achieving the concentration peak at 0.75 hours. The slow absorption and the great individual variability in plasma concentration, probably due to ruminal effects, suggest that cimicoxib is not suitable for oral treatment in sheep.