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  • Author: K. Vutova x
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Human dirofilariasis in Bulgaria between 2009 and 2018


Autochthonous Dirofilaria repens infections have been found in dogs and other carnivores in most European countries. In the same countries, reports of human dirofilariasis are becoming increasingly prevalent. We present 18 cases of people infected with D. repens for a 10-year period traced in our hospital. The data was collected from the observations and tests of all 18 patients from the whole country treated at the Specialized Hospital for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases in Sofia in the period 2009 – 2018. We used a morphological method, serology test and Knott’s method for microfilariae. The patients were 11 to 74 years of age, 12 female and 6 male. In most cases, patients have subcutaneous nodules or face, eyelid and eyes localization. The trend of increasing incidence in Bulgaria continues, with age and sex distribution and localization of the larva being similar to those in other European countries.

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Association Of Eosinophilic Fasciitis With Morphea


Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, described for the first time by Shulman in 1974. The disease presents with induration of the skin, connective tissue and the underlying muscle fascia, sometimes accompanied by myalgia, most commonly in the lower extremities. Unlike scleroderma, it presents with absence of visceral organ involvement and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Hypergammaglobulinemia and eosinophilia have been reported. Eosinophilic fasciitis is often associated with hematological disorders - there are reports of combinations with other autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Sjogren syndrome, vitiligo, etc. Occurrence of morphea, in the course of eosinophil fasciitis is considered a rarity. We have observed such a case with the simultaneous presence of both types of lesions. A 20-year-old female patient is reported, wherein the clinical picture developed for 6 months. The initial erythematous edema and subsequently the livedo-like painful plaques in both lower legs gradually swell, thicken and hyperpigment. Almost simultaneously with these complaints small brown livid body plaques emerged. The patient was diagnosed based on history, clinical picture, peripheral eosinophilia and histological findings from the affected areas. There was no systemic involvement and accompanying hematologic or other disease. Therapeutic management and significant clinical improvement were achieved using systemic corticosteroid therapy combined with methotrexate.

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