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A. Adeel, M. Aslam, H.K. Ullah, Y.M. Khan and M.A. Ayub

Abstract

Date is one of the major cash fruits in Pakistan. Presently Pakistan stands at sixth position in dates producing countries. Date occupies third position after citrus and mango in terms of fruit area and production. The present study was conducted to explore the current margins of various stakeholders involved in the existing marketing system of dates in two leading districts of South Punjab district, as Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffar Garh. A sample of 40 farmers, 30 commission agents, 30 wholesalers, 30 retailers and 30 consumers was selected randomly. Pretested questionnaires were used to collect the data from selected respondents through personal interviews. Private sector is dominant in all major marketing activities. The market intermediaries in date marketing system involve commission agent, wholesaler and retailer. Different intermediaries were taking different margins according to form of dates and locality. In Dera Ghazi khan, commission agent was getting 13.55%, wholesaler 11.71% and retailer, 18.09% margins of marketing chain for fresh date and share of growers in consumer price was 56.09%. Commission agent was taking 14.13%, wholesaler, 10.67% and retailer 17.2%; margin of marketing chain for fresh date and share of growers in consumer price was 58% in Muzaffar Garh. The price of date is much high due to long chain of marketing system. In order to reduce the wholesale and retail prices, government should take measures to establish date marketing centers and supply chain management training programs for the date growers.

Open access

K. Ullah, M. S. Khan, M. T. Lakhiar, A. A. Vighio and S. Sohu

Abstract

The problem of delay is a regular phenomenon in construction projects all around the world and the Malaysian building projects has no exclusion. The aim of this paper is to determine and rank the effects of delay in Malaysian building projects with respect to their Relative Importance Index. Literature review and questionnaire survey were used to gather data for this study. A thorough literature review was performed to identify the common effects of delays in building construction projects. A questionnaire was distributed among key project participants; contractors, clients and consultants, to rank the effects of delay in Malaysian building projects based on the perception of survey respondents. In total 300 questionnaires were distributed, as a result of 240 questionnaires were received. The collected data of questionnaire survey was analysed using statistical software SPSS. In total, 17 effects of the delays have been determined and findings from the survey revealed that time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, loss of profit, arbitration, claims, contract termination, litigation, poor quality of work, and total project abandonment were the main effects of delay in Malaysian building projects. The findings of this study might encourage construction stakeholders to focus on the issue of delays in building projects.