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Open access

K. Sołek and L. Trębacz

Thermo-Mechanical Model of Steel Continuous Casting Process

In the paper a numerical model of heat and mass transfer in the mould zone in the steel continuous casting technology was presented. The model has been developed using ProCAST software designed for simulation of casting processes. It allows to determine temperature and stress distribution in continuous castings in order to optimize the most important process parameters. In this work calculations were executed for low carbon steel grades casted in the industry. In the simulations the real rheological properties measured in the experimental work and the boundary conditions determined on the basis of the industrial data were used.

Open access

K. Sołek and M. Dziarmagowski

Abstract

This paper presents the tests of properties of selected steel grades conducted at higher temperatures. The findings of these mechanical tests are presented herein in graphs and in a table. They allow us to mathematically describe a change in the stress values depending on the change in strain within the plastic range in the tested steel grades.

The obtained results may be used for identification of the elasticity modulus and for developing a flow stress model for numerical simulations of the steel continuous casting process.

Open access

K. Sołek, M. Korolczuk-Hejnak and W. Ślęzak

Viscosity Measurements for Modeling of Continuous Steel Casting

This paper presents the results of the rheological analysis of five chosen grades of steel: F320, UG-m, S235-c, ETZ1, B500SP. These steels are produced in industrial conditions and used for slabs and billets.

In a metallurgical processes the viscosity parameter is an important indicator characterizing the behavior of liquid metal in the industrial aggregates. Due to the difficulty of the experiments only a small number of high temperature viscosity measurements are performed.

Rheological analysis of selected iron solutions was conducted in the range of liquid and below-liquid point. Measurements were taken using a high temperature viscometer FRS1600 working in accordance with the concentric cylinder method.

The acquired rheological characteristic allow to conclude that the investigated steels properties depend on the shear rate and temperature. The results will be used for numerical modeling of the steel casting process.

Open access

K. Solek

Abstract

Conditions of some casting processes cause flow of both liquid and semi-liquid metal alloys inside the die cavity. Generally, the continuous casting, squeeze casting or thixoforming could be classified as such processes. Design or optimisation of casting technology using numerical simulations requires knowledge of the rheological properties. The main objective of the experimental work, presented in this publication, is an analysis of the viscosity of 1.2080 (X210Cr12) high carbon steel in liquid and semisolid state. The secondary purpose of the experimental work was a development of the viscosity models used in continuous casting and thixoforming simulations. The significant achievement of this particular study was identification of thixotropy phenomenon which occurs not only during thixoforming, but also during magnetohydrodynamic stirring in continuous casting processes.

Open access

K. Sołek, M. Korolczuk-Hejnak and M. Karbowniczek

An Analysis of Steel Viscosity in the Solidification Temperature Range

The main objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the rheological properties of steel in a semi-solid state. The results were used for the development of mathematical models of the apparent viscosity.

Knowledge of the rheological properties is crucial for the numerical modeling of technological processes. Shaping in the semi-solid state, also known as thixoforming processes, is an innovative method of processing metal alloys and has a great many advantages in comparison with classical metal forming and foundry processes.

Nowadays, research is conducted with the practical application of this method in steel processing [1,2] as its goal. The most significant achievement of this particular study is the application of a viscometer which was specially designed for material tests executed at extremely high temperatures, such as the measurement of liquid or semi-liquid steel viscosity. This paper presents the results of a rheological analysis of 100Cr6 (PN ŁH15) tool steel. It was performed using a rotational viscometer with a stationary external cup.

Open access

A. Arustamian, K. Sołek and D. Kalisz

Abstract

Theoretical and practical research on the influence of temperature on mechanical characteristics of the composite material MM “Steel 1018” has been conducted. Both laboratory equipment used to measure of mechanical properties, the technique of material preparation and the experimental procedure were described. The analysis of the the obtained results revealed that with temperature increase the material yield point goes down.

Open access

K. Sołek and P. Kapranos

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the rheological properties of StelliteTM 21 alloy in the semi-solid state, as the results could be used for identifying the appropriate temperature range for thixoforming of this alloy, and a secondary objective of the experimental work was the development of mathematical model of the alloy’s apparent viscosity. Such viscosity models are necessary for numerical simulations of the thixoforming processes. The StelliteTM 21 alloy exhibits high hardness and thus shaping in the semi-solid state is promising route of production of parts from this alloy. Within the confines of experimental work the measurement methods of the rheological properties at high temperatures was developed. They are based on the use of specially designed viscometer equipped with high temperature furnace.

Open access

K. Solek and S. Szczepanik

Knowledge of the rheological properties is crucial for the numerical modeling of technological processes. The main objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the rheological properties of A380.0 (AlSi9Cu3(Fe)) aluminium alloy in the semi-solid state. The results could be used for identification of temperature range of the alloy, where thixoforming processes could be executed. Another purpose of the experimental work could be development of the mathematical models of the alloy apparent viscosity. The significant achievement of this particular study is an application of a viscometer which was specially designed for material tests executed at high temperatures, such as the measurement of liquid or semi-liquid aluminium viscosity. This paper presents the results of a rheological analysis of aluminium alloy.

Open access

A. Łukaszek-Sołek, A. Świątoniowski, K. Celadyn and J. Sińczak

Abstract

In this paper, the results of investigations into, and of the analyses of, the hot deformation behaviour of the Ni50Cr45N0.6 alloy were presented. Compression tests were conducted on a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator within the following temperatures range 850-1200°C and within that of the strain rate 1-40 s-1 to the constant true strain of 0.9, for the purpose of fulfilling the objective of obtaining experimental stress date. Those data were taken advantage of for the purpose of calculating the workability parameters, and that means the efficiency of power dissipation η, the flow instability ξ and the strain rate sensitivity m. The processing maps based upon Murty’s criterion were drawn up for the following true strain range: 0.2-0.9, and, subsequently, both processing windows and the flow instability areas were determined. For the alloy being analysed, the most advantageous conditions of metal forming were ascertained within the following range of temperatures: 950-1000°C, and for that of the strain rate amounting to 10-40 s-1, and that because of (occurring at the temperature of 950°C) the peak of the efficiency of power dissipation parameter η, amounting to 22% (in accordance with Murty’s criterion). The flow instability areas identified on the processing maps ought to be avoided in metal forming processes. Experimental rolling tests were also conducted.

Open access

A. Burbelko, J. Falkus, W. Kapturkiewicz, K. Sołek, P. Drożdż and M. WróbeL

Modeling of the Grain Structure Formation in the Steel Continuous Ingot by Cafe Method

Computer modeling of a temperature field and a solid phase fraction in casted billets is the base of any numerical simulation of the continuous casting technology. Temperature distribution in an ingot longitudinal and cross section for the same technological parameters is a function of solidification rate and rate of the solidification heat release. Nucleation rate and solid grain growth velocity depend on a melt undercooling below the liquidus temperature, and consequently depend on a temperature value. The results of the primary grain growth and temperature distribution modeling are presented for the square steel continuous casting 160×160 mm produced by CELSA Steel Works in Ostrowiec. For the modeling the ProCAST® software was used. Virtual structure of primary grains in the continuous ingot cross section was compared with a structure of a real ingot.