To evaluate the gastro-intestinal parasite fauna of the wild Polish primitive horses (Equus caballus gmelini Ant., forma silvatica Vet.), 11 yearlings captured in the Reserve according to the control rules of population dynamics were diagnostically dewormed with abamectin+praziquantel. Expelled parasites were collected from the faeces 24, 36 and 48 hours after treatment. Among a total of 4456 specimens (a mean 405.1 per horse) 27 nematode species, one cestode and one species of botfly larvae were recovered. Strongylids were 100 % prevalent and represented by 24 species (2 large strongylid and 22 cyathostome species). Five cyathostome species (Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, C. insigne, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Parapoteriostomum mettami and Gyalocephalus capitatus) were recorded for the first time in Polish primitive horses, whereas two species (Cyathostomum montgomeryi and Cylicostephanus bidentatus) were found for the first time in the horse in Poland. Oxyuris equi was found in 100 % and Parascaris equorum in 63.6 % of yearlings surveyed. Tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata) were revealed in 72.7 %, while Gasterophilus intestinalis instars in 90.9 % of horses. At least three parasite species were highly prevalent (i.e. S. vulgaris, A. perfoliata and G. intestinalis), which might be a reason of serious abdominal disorders in Polish horses living freely in the reserve.
The study was performed to investigate the gastrointestinal parasite fauna using the method of diagnostic deworming in own modification in 29 Polish primitive horses (Equus caballus) from the Roztocze National Park, south-east of Poland. The parasite community was comprised of 35 species represented by three nematode families (Strongylidae, Ascaridae, Habronematidae), one cestode family (Anoplocephalidae) and larvae of insects from the family Gasterophilidae (Diptera). Strongylidae being 100 % prevalent was represented by 31 species from the subfamily Strongylinae (6 species) and Cyathostominae (25 species). Parascaris equorum was recorded in 48.3 %, Habronema muscae in 55.2 %, tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata) in 24.1 % and Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae in 41.4 % of horses surveyed. The present results showed high prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites, which create the risk of health problems for horses living free in the reserve as well as stabled horses, when rarely treated.
Thirty-one Polish primitive horses (Equus caballus) from three herds (two from the reserve and onefrom the stable) were dewormed with ivermectin+praziquantel and examined for the gastrointestinalparasite fauna. A total of 21.231 parasites were collected from the faeces at 24, 36 and 48 hoursposttreatment. There were 35 nematode species, one cestode and one botfl y larva. Strongyloideswesteri infection was confirmed pretreatment by faecal sample examination and no threadwormspecimens were found after deworming. Large and small strongyle prevalence was 90 % – 100 % and represented by 31 species. Among a total of 25 cyathostome species recovered (from 19 to 24in each group), five species (C. catinatum, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, C. nassatus and C. ashworthi)had a prevalence of 100 % in three groups of horses. Meanwhile 14 species were 100 % prevalent in one herd. A total of six large strongyle species were found in adult horses. Oxyuris equiwas recorded in 60 – 100 % of the horses while Parascaris equorum was detected in 100 % of foalsand 16.7 % – 30 % of adult mares. Habronema muscae was found in 30 % of the horses from onefree-ranging herd. Tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata) were found in 90 % of the horses from onefree-ranging group, whereas botfl y larvae (Gasterophilus intestinalis) were found in 50 – 80 % of allsurveyed horses. The present results are compared with earlier studies of Polish primitive wild horsesfrom similar reserves in Poland. A total of 36 gastrointestinal parasite species were recorded fromwild and stabled horses from the Biebrza National Park. This is in comparison with 35 such speciesin free-ranging and stabled horses from the Roztocze National Park and with 28 such species offree-ranginghorses from the Popielno forest reserve.
Among parasites recovered, the highly prevalent S. vulgaris, tapeworms and botfl y larvae pose aserious risk of serious abdominal disorders in horses.
In 1998 Przewalski’s horses have been introduced in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ), N Ukraine. They live in the zone under natural conditions. No anthelminthic treatment to these introduced horses has been applied to date. In this same area, 19 domestic horses were also stabled by some peasants. Eighteen years after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, and five years after this introduction, the diagnostic dehelminthisation method has been applied both to the Przewalski’s horses (n = 21) and the domestic horses (n = 6). In addition, in one Przewalski’s and one domestic horse helmith fauna was surveyed using the post-mortem method. A total of 29 and 19 helminth species has been recorded in the Przewalski’s and domestic horses respectively. Only six helminth species were common for the two horse species compared. Species from the family Strongylidae constituted the dominant helminth group. Four cyathostomine species (Cyathostomum catinatum; Cylicostephanus minutus, C. longibursatus, Cylicocyclus nassatus) formed the majority of helminth parasites both in the Przewalski’s and domestic horses. Our findings suggest that the CEZ has no effect on the species diversity of helminth fauna parasiting Przewalski’s horses, neither it has an effect on the prevalence and intensity of parasite infestation. Behavioural and ecological studies also support the lack of such effect.
K. Slivinska, V. Kharchenko, Z. Wróblewski, J. Gawor and T. Kuzmina
An extensive analysis of the relationship between age, sex, and different types of management strategies relative to the gastrointestinal parasite community of Polish primitive horses was performed on 124 horses maintained in nine farms from four regions of Poland. The horses (96 females and 28 males) were housed in three types of management strategies: stabled (ST), free-ranging (FR) and semi-free (SF). These horses also were divided into three age groups: <3 years, 3 – 10 years and >10 years old. The gastrointestinal parasites were collected following deworming of all horses with anthelmintics containing the macrocyclic lactones and praziquantel. Totally, 66,192 parasite specimens were collected and identified. The analysis of dependence of horse infection with intestinal nematodes using sex, age and management strategies demonstrated that females had significantly heavier infections of strongylids. Young horses (<3 years old) had higher infections of Parascaris equorum and Strongyloides westeri. Free ranging horses were more infected with strongylids, Oxyuris equi and Gasterophilus intestinalis. Thirty-five nematode species, one cestode and one species of the botfly larvae of Gasterophilus were found. Diagnostic deworming examination revealed presence of Parascaris equorum in 27.4 %, Oxyuris equi in 38.7 %, Habronema muscae in 16.9 %, Anoplocephala perfoliata in 42.7 % and Gasterophilus intestinalis in 46.8% in the Polish primitive horses examined. Strongyloides westeri presence was confirmed only by fecal samples examination; threadworms were not observed in these horses after deworming. In the strongylid community, 31 species (6 of subfamily Strongylinae and 25 of Cyathostominae) were found. Significant differences in prevalence of separate strongylid species, or their proportions in the communities were not observed between females and males, or between age groups (p > 0.05). The highest species diversity (n=30 or 31) was observed in the FR horses, the lowest (n=15) – in ST horses. The FR horses had higher prevalence and proportion of large strongyles in the community, in comparison to SF or ST horses (p < 0.05).