Increasingly high demands on environmental protection are intensifying the development of sustainable construction. Ventilated facades can provide an energy-efficient alternative to standard facades, that is, external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS). The article compares standard facades, which was a reference, to ventilated facades in two variants: closed joints and open joints. The comparison was made by means of numerical simulations of computational fluid dynamic (CFD), under conditions of high outside temperature and high sunshine. The results showed great benefits of using ventilated facades in such external climate conditions. It was also observed that the selection of the variant of ventilated facade in the system of close or open joints has minimal influence on thermal efficiency of the whole partition.
The approach to numerical analyses was changed by the introduction of Eurocodes. The EN 1993-1-6 standard allows taking into account imperfections on the shape of a buckling form from a linear elastic bifurcation analysis. The article analyses the first ten forms of imperfection from a linear elastic bifurcation analysis on the reduction of the capacity of a cylindrical shell. Calculations were made using finite element methods.