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Open access

Rachna Thakur and Rajesh K. Gautam

Abstract

The prevalence of undernutrition is a significant area of concern in many developing countries, where it is a major public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of undernutrition among school-going boys and girls of central Indian city Sagar, MP. A total of 612 individuals (312 girls and 300 boys) aged 5–18 years were examined and compared to the NCHS reference data. The nutritional status was assessed using following anthropometric indicators: body height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). It was found that girls were heavier (1 kg) and taller (2–5 cm) than boys up to 15 and 13 years of age, respectively. After that, boys became taller with 1 to 13 cm. The mean BMI of boys was higher to girls up to 10 year of age after that the trend was reversed. Comparison of the present findings with NCHS reference data revealed that Indian girls and boys were lagging behind. The difference in body weight between the reference data and the present sample was around 5 to 6 kg. The pattern of difference in body height revealed small amount during early childhood (6.6.cm and 9.6 cm in girls and boys 5 years of age). This difference more than doubled at the age of 14 years in girls 16.7 cm and in boys 17.5 cm (p<0.01). Similar pattern was found for BMI with 6.5 kg/m2 and 6.3 kg/m2 in 14 years old girls and 16 years old boys (p<0.01). Z-score values of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age revealed that that boys were more likely to be stunted than girls whereas girls were more likely to be underweight and undernourished than boys. In terms of CIAF 10.6% girls and 10% boys were undernourished. The results of the present study indicate that there is great need for implementation of health programmes to eliminate gender inequalities and improve children’s health.

Open access

Rajesh Naga, S Chandralingam, T Anjaneyulu and K Satyanarayana

Denoising EOG Signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform

Eye movements are critical signs of the neurological disorders and they can be acquired by EOG. The EOG signal is electrical signal generated due to eye ball movements and is contaminated with brain signals and power line while recording. As the EOG signal is a non-stationary signal, it can be denoised by wavelet transformation techniques. The present work covers denoising of noisy EOG signal using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), which was done with all suitable wavelets that are morphologically similar to an EOG signal by applying both Soft and Hard Thresholding methods. An EOG signal was simulated and added with noise to obtain noisy EOG signal. The wavelet analysis of the simulated noisy EOG signal reveals that the Biorthogonal 3.3 wavelet is the best wavelet to denoise by using SWT technique, wherein the yield achieved was good with Signal to Noise Ratio of 36.5882 dB and minimum Mean Square Error of 0.383313 for quality diagnosis.

Open access

Ramesh Sahani, Rajesh K. Gautam, Amir H. Golnabi and Neeraj Vedwan

Abstract

The indigenous islanders of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are representing the earliest form of developmental stage, their nutritional assessment and anthropometric comparison with contemporary populations are the main objective of the present paper. In this study we present a cross sectional analysis of anthropometric data of 2010 individuals of 19 different groups. The data were collected by the trained anthropologists of Anthropological Survey of India, following standard techniques and ethical guidelines. It was found that the Indigenous Islanders have small body size as compared to immigrants and counterparts. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) was found highest among the mainlanders. Highest prevalence of overweight was found among Great Andamanese (18.2%), followed by Onge (7.4%). Individuals below 21 years of age were not found to be overweight or obese. On the other side, 16.7% of individual of age 41+ of local born were found to be overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2). It can be concluded that the Indigenous people of the Islands are short in stature and nutritionally better than immigrants. The immigrants are better than their counterparts in the mainland, but still they are not able to reach at par of the indigenous people in the level of nutrition whereas logarithmic transformation of data and scaling exponent (β) of weight to height was found ~2 across these populations.

Open access

Vinod Kumar, Rajesh K. Bawa and Arvind K. Lal

Abstract

In this paper, a singularly perturbed system of reaction–diffusion Boundary Value Problems (BVPs) is examined. To solve such a type of problems, a Modified Initial Value Technique (MIVT) is proposed on an appropriate piecewise uniform Shishkin mesh. The MIVT is shown to be of second order convergent (up to a logarithmic factor). Numerical results are presented which are in agreement with the theoretical results.

Open access

K. Rajesh and K.M. Saheb

Abstract

Tapered beams are more efficient compared to uniform beams as they provide a better distribution of mass and strength and also meet special functional requirements in many engineering applications. In this paper, the linear and non-linear fundamental frequency parameter values of the tapered Timoshenko beams are evaluated by using the coupled displacement field (CDF) method and closed form expressions are derived in terms of frequency ratio as a function of slenderness ratio, taper ratio and maximum amplitude ratio for hinged-hinged and clamped-clamped beam boundary conditions. The effectiveness of the CDF method is brought out through the solution of the large amplitude free vibrations, in terms of fundamental frequency of tapered Timoshenko beams with axially immovable ends. The results obtained by the present CDF method are validated with the existing literature wherever possible.

Open access

M. Suresh Kumar, K. Rajesh, G.V. Vijayaraghavan and S. Krishnan

Abstract

Good quality diglycine perchlorate (DGPCL) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth method using the combination of glycine and perchloric acid in the ratio of 2:1. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and mechanical characterization of the grown single crystals of diglycine perchlorate were analyzed in this article. Lattice parameters, space group and crytal system were found from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the cell parameters and space group are in a good agreement with the reported values. Mechanical properties, such as Vicker’s microhardness number, work hardening index, standard hardness value, yield strength, fracture toughness, brittleness index and elastic stiffness constant values, were determined using Vicker’s microhardness tester.

Open access

Muhammed Manzoor, Rajesh K. Wadhwa, Zaigham Abbas, Syed Mujahid Hasan, Nasir Hasan Luck and Muhammed Mubarak

Abstract

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation with hepatocyte injury (ballooning) with or without fibrosis. NASH is often a “silent” liver disease. Estimated prevalence of NASH ranges from 3% to 5% in different studies. The prevalence of NASH-related cirrhosis in the general population is not known. Herein, we report a case of a young female presented with NASH-related cirrhosis in the setting of poorly controlled celiac disease (CD) and microscopic colitis. A variety of liver abnormalities have been observed in patients with CD, but this unique constellation of the gut and liver pathologies has not been reported previously.

Open access

K. Ramarao, B. Rajesh Babu, B. Kishore Babu, V. Veeraiah, K. Rajasekhar, B. Ranjith Kumar and B. Swarna Latha

Abstract

In this work, Ni substituted magnesium spinel ferrites having general formula Mg1−xNixFe2O4 (where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3) were synthesized by standard solid state reaction method. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), DC resistivity measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the single spinel phase. The lattice constant decreased with increasing Ni content due to the difference in the ionic radii of Mg2+ and Ni2+ ions. The FT-IR spectra reveled two prominent frequency bands in the wave number range of 400 cm−1 to 600 cm−1, which confirmed the cubic spinel structure of obtained compound and completion of chemical reaction. Magnetic studies revealed that the saturation magnetization increased with the substitution of Ni. The increase in magnetization was explained on the basis of distribution of magnetic and non-magnetic cations among A and B sites of the spinel lattice. A significant influence of cation distribution on DC electrical resistivity and activation energy was observed.

Open access

R. Patra, S.P. Barik and P.K. Chaudhuri

Abstract

This article is concerned with the study of frictionless contact between a rigid punch and a transversely isotropic functionally graded layer. The rigid punch is assumed to be axially symmetric and is supposed to be pressing the layer by an applied concentrated load. The layer is resting on a rigid base and is assumed to be sufficiently thick in comparison with the amount of indentation by the rigid punch. The graded layer is modeled as a non-homogeneous medium. The relationship between the applied load P and the contact area is obtained by solving the mathematically formulated problem through using the Hankel transform of different order. Numerical results have been presented to assess the effects of functional grading of the medium and the applied load on the stress distribution in the layer as well as on the relationship between the applied load and the area of contact.