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A. Strojny-Nedza and K. Pietrzak

Abstract

Alumina/copper composites are used where high thermal conductivity, high absorption and dissipation of heat, high resistance to thermal fatigue and good frictional wear resistance are required. The properties of these composites depend on a number of factors including the content, shape and distribution of the ceramic phase, the method of their obtaining, as well as the conditions under which they are obtained. All these variables have influence on mentioned properties and, in consequence, on the future applications of the final material. The aim of this paper was to develop Cu-Al2O3 composites, processed using two techniques, namely sintering (of Cu /Al2O3 high-energy mixed powders) and tape casting (of slurry of the following composition: 1, 3 and 5 vol.% of Al2O3 phase; the remaining part: Cu). The compositions were determined taking into consideration the planned applications. The paper presents newly developed technologies, the results of both microstructure investigations as well as of the measurements of selected physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, wear resistance, thermal conductivity etc.) and contains the analysis of the influence of selected techniques and processing conditions on the properties and the interface morphology between ceramic and copper

Open access

M. Maj, K. Pietrzak and J. Piekło

Abstract

The study describes the investigations of fatigue life carried out on selected grades of the G20Mn5 cast steel by two methods, i.e. the standard low-cycle fatigue test (LCF test) and modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF). The aim of these investigations was to verify the reliability of tests conducted by the novel method of MLCF [1, 2, 3].

Table 1 shows the results of mechanical tests carried out in accordance with the MLCF methodology on the G20Mn5 cast steel, while Figures 1a-b and 2 show the selected σ = f (ε) curves. Similar studies were carried out for the Mn-Ni cast steel [4].

Low-cycle fatigue tests (LCF) were carried out on an MTS 810 testing machine with control of force exerted on specimens whose dimensions were specified in [2].

Open access

K. Jach, K. Pietrzak, A. Wajler, A. Sidorowicz and U. Brykała

Abstract

This paper presents new solution to manufacturing Cu-Al2O3 composites with a dispersed reinforcement phase. It consists in substituting commonly used commercial alumina powder with crushed ceramic foam. Very low strength of thin-walled Al2O3 porous foams results in both their easy destruction and isolation of fragments <200 μm. The addition of the ceramic phase is 3-10 vol.%. The sintering process is performed for 30 min in a hot-press at 1050°C and 30 MPa. The aim of the presented paper is to study the effect of the volume content of the ceramic phase on the microstructure and selected physical and thermal properties of copper - alumina composites.

Open access

D. Kalinski, M. Chmielewski, K. Pietrzak and K. Choregiewicz

Intermetallic phases of the Ni-Al type belong to the group of modern constructional materials which have numerous advantageous properties such as high melting temperature, low density, high resistance to high-temperature oxidation (to about 1200°C), high mechanical strength, high fatigue strength, and high tensile and compressive strength (also at elevated temperatures). Intermetallic compounds have however also drawbacks in that they are quite brittle at room temperature which makes their mechanical processing very difficult and restricts their application range. These drawbacks can be obviated by modifying their chemical composition. Improving the properties of NiAl-based materials can be achieved by creating the composite with the matrix made of an intermetallic phase NiAl reinforced with ceramic (Al2O3) particles.

This paper is concerned with the mechanical and physical properties (bending strength, fracture toughness, hardness, and Young modulus) and also the microstructure of NiAl/Al2O3 composite. The composite materials were produced by the hot-pressed method using the NiAl/20%Al2O3 (vol.%) powder mixtures. The composite thus produced had a high density of about 99% of the theoretical value and a high bending strength. The bending strength of the NiAl/20vol.%Al2O3 composite was higher by about 80% (635 MPa) than that of the pure NiAl phase (345 MPa). The experiments included also the examination of the effect of the rotational speed of the mill and the duration of the mixing process upon the size and distribution of grains, the microstructure, and phase composition of the composite powder mixtures obtained.

Open access

M. Maj and K. Pietrzak

Abstract

The paper presents the results of comparative tests of the fatigue properties conducted on two non-ferrous alloys designated as Al 6082 and Al 7075 which, due to the satisfactory functional characteristics, are widely used as engineering materials. The fatigue tests were carried out using a proprietary, modified low cycle test (MLCF). Particular attention was paid to the fatigue strength exponent b and fatigue ductility exponent c. Based on the tests carried out, the results comprised within the range defined by the literature were obtained. These results prove a satisfactory sensitivity of the method applied, its efficiency, the possibility of conducting tests in a fully economical way and above all the reliability of the obtained results of the measurements. Thus, the thesis has been justified that the modified low cycle fatigue test (MLCF) can be recommended as a tool used in the development of alloy characteristics within the range of low-cycle variable loads

Open access

K. Pietrzak, W. Olesinska, D. Kalinski and A. Strojny-Nedza

Abstract

The effect of phase transformations induced in the surface layer of alumina ceramics during its direct joining with copper activated with oxygen or titanium on the mechanical strength of the ceramic/copper joints was examined. The materials used in the experiments were an alumina single crystal, alumina ceramics (97.5 wt% Al2O3), the cermet mixtures: Cu-Cu2O with 10-50 wt% of Cu2O, copper with 5 wt% of Ti, and copper with 5 wt% of Ti and 10 wt% of Ag. The microstructure of the transition layer was examined by the X-ray diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscopy method (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The mechanical strength of the joints was measured using the three-point bending method. The amount of oxygen optimal for the joining process was determined. It has been demonstrated that the cohesion of the joints depends not only on the formation of the individual phases but also, or even primarily, on the microstructure of the transition layer formed between them.

Open access

M. Maj and K. Pietrzak

Abstract

This study discloses the characteristic features of the modified low-cycle fatigue test used for the determination of the mechanical properties of two types of cast iron, i.e. EN-GJL-250 and EN-GJS-600-3. For selected materials, metallographic studies were also conducted in the range of light microscopy and scanning microscopy.

Open access

M. Chmielewski and K. Pietrzak

Abstract

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) belong to a new, continuously developing group of materials, finding application in various branches of industry. The idea of freely designing their construction profile, restricted only by the available manufacturing techniques, enables obtaining materials with composition and structure gradients having unprecedented properties. In this paper, selected results of works carried out by the authors and relating to the application of the developed metal-ceramic composites were presented in order to manufacture functionally graded materials for target purposes. Gradient structures with various construction profiles that can play different roles were produced on the basis on the following material pairs: Cr-Al2O3, NiAl-Al2O3 and Cu-AlN. Manufacturing conditions, microstructure characteristics and selected properties, crucial from the point of view of future applications, were presented.

Open access

K. Pietrzak, A. Gładki, K. Frydman, D. Wójcik-Grzybek, A. Strojny-Nędza and T. Wejrzanowski

Abstract

The main current of publication is focused around the issues and problems associated with the formation of composite materials with Cu matrix and reinforcing phases in the various carbon nanoforms. The core of the research has been focused on thermal conductivity of these composites types. This parameter globally reflects the state of the structure, quality of raw materials and the technology used during the formation of composite materials. Vanishingly low affinity of copper for carbon, multilayered forms of graphene, the existence of critical values of graphene volume in the composite are not conducive to the classic procedures of composites designing. As a result, the expected, significant increase in thermal conductivity of composites is not greater than for pure copper matrix. Present paper especially includes: (i) data of obtaining procedure of copper/graphene mixtures, (ii) data of sintering process, (iii) the results of structure investigations and of thermal properties. Structural analysis revealed the homogenous distribution of graphene in copper matrix, the thermal analysis indicate the existence of carbon phase critical concentration, where improvement of thermal diffusivity to pure copper can occur.

Open access

K. Pietrzak, A. Klasik, M. Maj, N. Sobczak and A. Wojciechowski

Abstract

Lead-free alloys containing various amounts of zinc (4.5%, 9%, 13%) and constant copper addition (1%) were discussed. The results of microstructure examinations carried out by light microscopy (qualitative and quantitative) and by SEM were presented. In the light microscopy, a combinatorial method was used for the quantitative evaluation of microstructure. In general, this method is based on the phase quanta theory according to which every microstructure can be treated as an arrangement of phases/structural components in the matrix material. Based on this method, selected geometrical parameters of the alloy microstructure were determined. SEM examinations were based on chemical analyses carried out in microregions by EDS technique. The aim of the analyses was to identify the intermetallic phases/compounds occurring in the examined alloys. In fatigue testing, a modified low cycle fatigue test method (MLCF) was used. Its undeniable advantage is the fact that each time, using one sample only, several mechanical parameters can be estimated. As a result of structure examinations, the effect of alloying elements on the formation of intermetallic phases and compounds identified in the examined lead-free alloys was determined. In turn, the results of mechanical tests showed the effect of intermetallic phases identified in the examined alloys on their fatigue life. Some concepts and advantages of the use of the combinatorial and MLCF methods in materials research were also presented.