Anthraquinone derivatives chemisorbed at nanocrystalline TiO2 present a new type of photoactive hybrid materials. These systems consist of organic chromophores anchored to the semiconductor surface via oxygen atoms of hydroxyl or carbonyl group. The bond between the chromophore and the titanium atom at the semiconductor surface reveals strong covalent character which makes the material stable in wide spectrum of electric potential and in an acidic environment. In alkaline solutions hydrolysis can be observed. The electrodes made of a modified TiO2 generate photocurrents within 300-700 nm, compared, with 300-400 nm for unmodified TiO2. Such an efficient photosensitization is a result of mutual arrangement of energy levels of the molecule and energy bands of the semiconductor.
K. Mech, R. Kowalik and K. Fitzner
Electrochemical Synthesis of Tetragonal SnO2 Phase
The main aim of this research was to determine parameters of deposition of tetragonal SnO2 phase by electrochemical method. The influence of different parameters like potential of a working electrode, the electrolyte composition and time of deposition on the morphology of the electrodeposited SnO2 was determined by LSV and QCM techniques. The mechanism of the oxide formation is also discussed. The morphology and structure of films was characterized by AFM and XRD technique.
P. Żabiński, K. Mech and R. Kowalik
Co-Mo and Co-Mo-C Alloys Deposited in a Magnetic Field of High Intensity and their Electrocatalytic Properties
The article presents results of tests on electrodeposition in a magnetic field of Co-Mo and Co-Mo-C alloys characterised by low overvoltage of hydrogen evolution. Addition of molybdenum and carbon was to lower the values of overvoltage of hydrogen evolution on cobalt. The influence of a magnetic field of high intensity (1 - 12 T) on the deposits composition, structure and morphology was determined. The deposition was conducted in a magnetic field of parallel orientation of the magnetic field forces lines in relation to the working electrode. Electrocatalytic properties of the obtained alloy coatings within the range of hydrogen evolution were tested in a concentrated solution of NaOH. The obtained alloys were analysed with the XRD method, their composition was tested with the WDXRF technique and they underwent observation applying scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The comparison of electrocatalytic properties of Co-Mo alloys with properties of Co-Mo-C ones enabled determining the influence of carbon presence in cathodic deposits on the overvoltage value of hydrogen evolution on them.
K. Mech, R. Kowalik and P. Żabiński
Cu Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering for Contact Surfaces on Electronic Components
The results of the DC magnetron sputtering of copper thin films with different parameters of deposition are presented. The main aim of studies was to determine the influence of current value, time of deposition and target-substrate distance on morphology and grain size of obtained copper thin films. The effects of film's thickness on the resistivity of copper thin films were investigated. The influence of parameters on the rate of deposition was also determined. The possibility of application of resulting films for contact surface in electronic components was discussed. The morphology was characterized by AFM method, the size of Cu deposited grains was calculated using Scherrer's method. The WDXRF method was used for estimate of thickness of sputtered films. The resistivity of obtained films was measured using four probe method.
K. Zarębski and M. Nykiel
The study describes the microstructural analysis of cylindrically-shaped functionally graded products sintered from iron powder with scheduled graded structure on the cross-section running from the core to the surface layer of the sinter. Different types of structure were produced using Distaloy SE powder in two compositions - one without the addition of carbon, and another with 0.6wt% C. Two methods were used to fill the die cavity and shape the products. The first method involving a two-step compaction of individual layers. The second method using an original technique of die filling enabled the formation of transition zone between the outer layer and the core still at the stage of product shaping. As part of microstructural analysis, structural constituents were identified and voids morphology was examined. Studies covered the effect of the type of the applied method on properties of the graded zone obtained in the manufactured products
K. Mech, P. Zabinski, M. Mucha and R. Kowalik
The work presents results of researches over the deposition of Ni-Mo alloys through the electrolysis conducted in galvanostatic conditions. In order to improve adhesion and aesthetic properties of the deposited alloys, SLS was added to the bath as a surface active agent. The influence of electrolyte pH was tested as well as concentrations of particular components on the composition, structure, cathodic current efficiency of the electrolysis process and catalytic activity of alloys in the process of hydrogen evolution. A positive influence of addition of molybdenum on catalytic activity was observed occurring in lowering the Tafel’s slope within the activation control range from 122 mV/dec (Ni) to 21 mV/dec (Ni-28.5Mo) for a reaction of water molecules reduction in 8 M NaOH at 90°C.
R. Bogucki, K. Sulikowska, M. Bieda, P. Ostachowski and K. Sztwiertnia
Analysis of the results of the microstructure and the mechanical properties change in AA1050 aluminum alloy of technical purity processed using ECAP (Equal Channel Angular Pressing) and KoBo deformation methods are presented in the paper.. ECAP process was performed according to Bc scheme in the range from 1 up to 10 passes. Changes of microstructure were analyzed using scanning electrone microscope equipped with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) system. Microstructure and fraction of high-angle grain boundaries in KoBo processed samples were similar to those observed in ECAP processed samples after four passes. The most significant microstructure refinement was observed in ECAP processed sample submitted to 10 passes. In ECAP method the systematic increase of mechanical properties was observed along with increase of deformation degree.
Katarzyna Dąbkowska, Monika Mech, Kamil Kopeć and Maciej Pilarek
Enzymatic hydrolysis is the essential step in the production of 2nd generation biofuels made from lignocellulosic biomass, i.e. agricultural or forestry solid wastes. The enzyme-catalysed robust degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose to monosaccharides requires the synergistic action of the independent types of highly-specific enzymes, usually offered as ready-to-use preparations. The basic aim of the study was to experimentally determine the enzymatic activity of two widely industrially-applied, commercially available cellulolytic enzyme preparations: (i) Cellic® CTec2 and (ii) the mixture of Celluclast® 1.5L and Novozyme 188, in the hydrolysis of pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass, i.e. (a) energetic willow and (b) rye straw, or untreated (c) cellulose paper as well, used as feedstocks. Before the hydrolysis, every kind of utilized lignocellulosic biomass was subjected to alkaline-based (10% NaOH) pre-treatment at high-temperature (121°C) and overpressure (0.1 MPa) conditions. The influence of the type of applied enzymes, as well as their concentration, on the effectiveness of hydrolysis was quantitatively evaluated, and finally the enzyme activities were determined for each of tested cellulolytic enzyme preparations.
M. Wojnicki, I. Mania, M. Marzec, M. Gajewska and K. Mech
Present work describes the influence of silver nanoparticles precursor form as well as the impact of graphene oxide initial concentration on deposition of the silver nanoparticles onto graphene oxide. Borane dimethylamine complex (DMAB) was used as the reducing agent. It was observed that application of silver ammonia complexes as the silver nanoparticles precursor as well as alkaline solution effect in higher quantity of deposited AgNPs in comparison to deposition process with the use of silver(I) nitrate in acidic solution.
Suril V. Shah and Subir K. Saha
The condition number of the Generalized Inertia Matrix (GIM) of a serial chain can be used to measure its ill-conditioning. However, computation of the condition number is computationally very expensive. Therefore, this paper investigates alternative means to estimate the condition number, in particular, for a very long serial-chain. For this, the diagonal elements of the GIM are examined. It is found that the ratio of the largest and smallest diagonal elements of the GIM, when scaled using an initial estimate of the condition number, closely resembles the condition number. This significantly simplifies the process of detecting ill-conditioning of the GIM, which may help to decide on stability of the system at hand