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Open access

St. M. Dobosz, D. Drożyński, J. Jakubski and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

The article discusses the issue of the influence of furfuryl alcohol content in resin binders on properties of moulding sand at elevated temperature. Reducing the share of this component - due to the requirements of the European Union regarding its toxicity - may cause a decrease in temperature of moulding sands’ destruction and, consequently, the thermal deformation of moulds and the creation of many casting defects. The study examined the impact of the furfuryl alcohol content of the thermal destruction processes and on the strength of the moulding sand at an ambient temperature and the tendency to thermal deformation.

Open access

P. Jelínek, St.M. Dobosz, J. Beňo and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

Bentonite binders rank among the most widespread applied systems for the production of molds. Their resistance to high temperatures (thermal stability) is mainly defined by genesis of binders, chemical composition and the content of Montmorillonite. The aim of this contribution is to compare selected bentonite binders commonly used in the foundries of the Central European region, in different ways of the thermostability determination as a result of changes of the mechanical strengths of the bentonite bonded sand mixture.

Open access

K. Major-Gabryś, S.M. Dobosz, P. Jelínek, J. Jakubski and J. Beňo

Abstract

The necessity of receiving high quality castings forces undertaking research to elaborate moulding and core sands ensuring obtaining the materials with relevant technological parameters and also with high environmental standards. The most important group here are moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate. Unfortunately, their fundamental disadvantages are weak knock-out properties. The article presents the most commonly used methods of measuring the knock-out properties of moulding and core sands. The authors propose a new method for estimation this parameter. The method is based on the measurement of high-temperature expansion.

Open access

St. M. Dobosz, K. Major-Gabryś and A. Grabarczyk

Abstract

The article shows the influence of environment requirements on changes in different foundry moulding sands technologies such as cold box, self-hardening moulding sands and green sands. The aim of the article is to show the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders’ compositions) for foundry moulding and core sands. The authors concentrated on the possibility of preparing new binders consisting of typical synthetic resins - commonly used in foundry practice - and biodegradable materials. According to own research it is presumed that using biodegradable materials as a part of new binders’ compositions may cause not only lower toxicity and better ability to reclaim, but may also accelerate the biodegradation rate of used binders. What’s more, using some kinds of biodegradable materials may improve flexibility of moulding sands with polymeric binder. The conducted research was introductory and took into account bending strength and thermal properties of furan moulding sands with biodegradable material (PCL). The research proved that new biodegradable additive did not decrease the tested properties.

Open access

J. Jakubski, St. M. Dobosz and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

Artificial neural networks are one of the modern methods of the production optimisation. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. This paper presents the next part of the study on usefulness of artificial neural networks to support rebonding of green moulding sand, using chosen properties of moulding sands, which can be determined fast. The effect of changes in the training set quantity on the quality of the network is presented in this article. It has been shown that a small change in the data set would change the quality of the network, and may also make it necessary to change the type of network in order to obtain good results.

Open access

J. Jakubski, St. M. Dobosz and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

Artificial neural networks are one of the modern methods of the production optimisation. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neural network able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and the compressive strength. Then, the data of selected parameters of new moulding sand were set to selected artificial neural network models. This was made to test the universality of the model in relation to other moulding sands. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of network proper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageous conditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP) network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

Open access

K. Major-Gabryś, A. Bobrowski, A. Grabarczyk and St. M. Dobosz

Abstract

The aim of the article is thermal and structural analysis of new two-component binders for foundry moulding sands. The previous research showed the possibility of using biodegradable materials as binders or parts of binders’ compositions for foundry moulding and core sands. This paper is concentrated on estimating the influence of PCL on phenol-furfuryl resin thermal destruction (measured by derivatographic research) and its structure (measured by FTiR technology). The research proved that addition of new biodegradable additive PCL in the amount of 5-15% to the phenol-furfuryl resin doesn’t change the resin thermal destruction course but it results in appearance of a new band in two-component binder structure. What’s more there has been noticed a growth of intensity for band at wavenumber 1730 cm-1 (C = O) with the increasing addition of PCL.

Open access

St. M. Dobosz, A. Grabarczyk, K. Major-Gabryś and J. Jakubski

Abstract

Modern techniques of castings production, including moulding sands production, require a strict technological regime and high quality materials. In the case of self-hardening moulding sands with synthetic binders those requirements apply mainly to sand, which adds to more than 98% of the whole moulding sand mixture. The factors that affect the quality of the moulding sands are both chemical (SiO2, Fe2O3 and carbonates content) and physical. Among these factors somewhat less attention is paid to the granulometric composition of the sands. As a part of this study, the effect of sand quality on bending strength Rgu and thermal deformation of self-hardening moulding sands with furfural and alkyd resin was assessed. Moulding sands with furfural resin are known [1] to be the most susceptible to the sand quality. A negative effect on its properties has, among others, high content of clay binder and so-called subgrains (fraction smaller than 0,1mm), which can lead to neutralization of acidic hardeners (in the case of moulding sands with furfuryl resin) and also increase the specific surface, what forces greater amount of binding agents. The research used 5 different quartz sands originating from different sources and characterized with different grain composition and different clay binder content.

Open access

K. Major-Gabryś, A. Grabarczyk and St.M. Dobosz

Abstract

Growing emission requirements are forcing the foundry industry to seek new, more environmentally friendly solutions. One of the solutions may be the technologies of preparing moulding and core sands using organic biodegradable materials as binders. However, not only environmental requirements grow but also those related to the technological properties of moulding sand. Advancing automation and mechanization of the foundry industry brings new challenges related to the moulding sands. Low elasticity may cause defects during assembly of cores or moulds by the manipulators.

The paper presents the study of flexibility in the room temperature according to new method and resistance to thermal deformation of self-hardening moulding sands with furfuryl resin, containing biodegradable material PCL. The task of the new additive is to reduce the moulding sands harmfulness to the environment and increase its flexibility in the room temperature. The impact of the additive and the effect of the amount of binder on the properties of mentioned moulding sands were analysed. Studies have shown that the use of 5% of PCL does not change the nature of the thermal deformation curve, improves the bending strength of tested moulding mixtures and increases their flexibility at room temperature.

Open access

St. M. Dobosz, A. Grabarczyk and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

This paper focuses on mechanical properties of self hardening moulding sands with furfuryl and alkyd binders. Elasticity as a new parameter of moulding sands is investigated. With the use of presented testing equipment, it is possible to determine force kinetics and deformation of moulding sand in real time. The need for this kind of study comes from the modern casting industry. New foundries can be characterized with high intensity of production which is correlated with high level of mechanization and automatization of foundry processes. The increasingly common use of manipulators in production of moulds and cores can lead to generation of new types of flaws, caused by breakage in moulds and cores which could occur during mould assembly. Hence it is required that moulds and cores have high resistance to those kinds of factors, attributing it with the phenomenon of elasticity. The article describes the theoretical basis of this property, presents methods of measuring and continues earlier research.