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Open access

K. Murawski and D. Lee

Numerical methods of solving equations of hydrodynamics from perspectives of the code FLASH

In this paper we review numerical methods for hydrodynamic equations. Internal complexity make numerical solutions of these equations a formidable task. We present results of advanced numerical simulations for a complex system with a use of a publicly available code, FLASH. These results proof that the numerical methods cope very well with this task.

Open access

C.K. Kim, G.-J. Lee, M.K. Lee and C.K. Rhee


In this study, nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol using portable pulsed wire evaporation, which is a one-step physical method. From transmission electron microscopy images, it was found that the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape with an average diameter of 7.3 nm. To prevent aggregation of the nickel nanoparticles, a polymer surfactant was added into the ethanol before the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles, and adsorbed on the freshly synthesized nickel nanoparticles during the wire explosion. The dispersion stability of the prepared nickel nanofluids was investigated by zeta-potential analyzer and Turbiscan optical analyzer. As a result, the optimum concentration of polymer surfactant to be added was suggested for the maximized dispersion stability of the nickel nanofluids.

Open access

M. Jusoh, Z. Abbas, K. Lee, K. You and A. Norimi

Determination of Moisture Content in Mortar at Near Relaxation Frequency 17 GHz

The knowledge of moisture content in cement based material is important especially for the safety in field work. In this paper, a non-destructive and contactless free space method is used for measurement of moisture content in cement based materials (mortar) at microwave frequencies. The measurement system consists of a 17 GHz dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) as a microwave source, a Power Meter as the detector, and a pair of lens horn antennas to transmit and receive the microwave signal. An empirical formula of moisture content was obtained by using a relationship between attenuation and moisture content. This model is best for prediction of moisture content greater than 2% with percentage mean error of 3%.

Open access

J.-H. Lee, D.-O. Kim and K. Lee


The hot deformation behavior of a heavy micro-alloyed high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel plate was studied by performing compression tests at elevated temperatures. The hot compression tests were carried out at temperatures from 923 K to 1,223 K with strain rates of 0.002 s−1 and 1.0 s−1. A long plateau region appeared for the 0.002 s−1 strain rate, and this was found to be an effect of the balancing between softening and hardening during deformation. For the 1.0 s−1 strain rate, the flow stress gradually increased after the yield point. The temperature and the strain rate-dependent parameters, such as the strain hardening coefficient (n), strength constant (K), and activation energy (Q), obtained from the flow stress curves were applied to the power law of plastic deformation. The constitutive model for flow stress can be expressed as σ = (39.8 ln (Z) – 716.6) · ε (−0.00955ln(Z) + 0.4930) for the 1.0 s−1 strain rate and σ = (19.9ln (Z) – 592.3) · ε (−0.00212ln(Z) + 0.1540) for the 0.002 s−1 strain rate.

Open access

J.G. Jang, J.-O. Lee and C.K. Lee


Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by pulsed electrodeposition was investigated in the non-aqueous electrolyte, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazoliumbis(trifluoro-methanesulfonyl)imide ([EMIM]TFSI) with gold trichloride (AuCl3). To aid the dissolution of AuCl3, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) was used as a supporting electrolyte in [EMIM]TFSI. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed a cathodic reaction corresponding to the reduction of gold at −0.4 V vs. Pt-QRE. To confirm the electrodeposition process, potentiostatic electrodeposition of gold in the non-aqueous electrolyte was conducted at −0.4 V for 1 h at room temperature. To synthesize AuNPs, pulsed electrodeposition was conducted with controlled duty factor, pulse duration, and overpotential. The composition, particle-size distribution, and morphology of the AuNPs were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrodeposited AuNPs were uniformly distributed on the platinum electrode surface without any impurities arising from the non-aqueous electrolyte. The size distribution of AuNPs could be also controlled by the electrodeposition conditions.

Open access

K. Lee and G. Shin


Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material with outstanding biocompatibility. It is chemically similar to natural bone tissue, and has therefore been favored for use as a coating material for dental and orthopedic implants. In this study, RF magnetron sputtering was applied for HA coating. And Alkali treatment was performed in a 5 M NaOH solution at 60°C. The coated HA thin film was heat-treated at a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C. The morphological characterization and crystal structures of the coated specimens were then obtained via FE-SEM, XRD, and FT-IR. The amorphous thin film obtained on hydrothermally treated nanorods transformed into a crystalline thin film after the heat treatment. The change in the phase transformation, with an enhanced crystallinity, showed a reduced wettability. The hydrothermally treated nanorods with an amorphous thin film, on the other hand, showed an outstanding wettability. The HA thin film perpendicularly coated the nanorods in the upper and inner parts via RF magnetron sputtering, and the FT-IR results confirmed that the molecular bonding of the coated film had an HA structure.

Open access

K. Lee and D. Yoo


Ti surfaces covered with large sodium titanate nanorods act as efficient electrodes for energy conversion and environmental applications. In this study, sodium titanate nanorod films were prepared on a Ti substrate in a 5M NaOH aqueous solution followed by heat treatment. The morphological characterization and the crystal structures of the sodium titanate nanorods were investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Thin amorphous sodium titanate layers formed during the alkali-treatment, and sodium titanate nanorods were obtained after heat treatment at a temperature of 700°C. The sodium titanate nanorods obtained at this temperature had a thickness of about 80 nm and a length of 1 μm. The crystal structure of the sodium titanate was identified with the use of Na2Ti5O11. The nanorods were agglomerated at a temperature above 900°C, and large-scale nanorods formed on the Ti surface, which may be used for electrodes for energy conversion applications.

Open access

Z. Zhao and K. Lee


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the alloying elements on the plastic workability and corrosion behavior of Ti-X (wt.%) (X = 6 Co, 8 Cr, 4 Fe, 6 Mn, 10 Mo, and 36 Nb) binary alloys. The alloys with a molybdenum equivalence of 10 wt.% were fabricated by a vacuum arc re-melting process and were then homogenized at a temperature 20°C greater than the beta transus temperature for 14.4 ks. The plastic workability was investigated under uniaxial cold rolling, while the corrosion behavior was examined in Ringer’s solution at 37°C. Among the Ti-X alloys, the Ti-8 wt.% Cr and Ti-6 wt.% Mn alloys showed an outstanding plastic workability and corrosion resistance, respectively.

Open access

Chin Hong Ng, S. L. Lee and K. K. S. Ng


The in-house production of fluorescently labelled

internal size standard offers the advantage of cost saving

over the commercial size standard in microsatellite

genotyping. Based on the reported in-house internal size

standard protocol, we have improved the method by generating

21 DNA fragments (in a standard named as HM-

400) with each size similar to that of the commercial

size standard. The consistent amplification of the correct

fragment size was optimised via primer modulation

for non-templated nucleotide addition by Taq DNA polymerase.

A total of six microsatellite loci were used to

assess the accuracy of HM-400 and the mean standard

deviation of the size data was 0.19. The differences

between the fragment size means for samples sized

using HM-400 and commercial size standard were small

with an average of 0.29 bp. The production cost of HM-

400 was only 10% of the cost of commercial size standard.

Open access

Y.-K. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Gwon and K.-A. Lee


This study attempted to manufacture an ODS alloy by combining multiple milling processes in mechanical alloying stage to achieve high strength and fracture elongation. The complex milling process of this study conducted planetary ball milling, cryogenic ball milling and drum ball milling in sequential order, and then the microstructure and tensile deformation behavior were investigated after additional heat treatment. The oxide particles distributed within the microstructure were fine oxide particles of 5~20 nm and coarse oxide particles of 100~200 nm, and the oxide particles were confirmed to be composed of Cr, Ti, Y and O. Results of tensile tests at room temperature measured yield strength, tensile strength and elongation as 1320 MPa, 2245 MPa and 4.2%, respectively, before heat treatment, and 1161 MPa, 2020 MPa and 5.5% after heat treatment. This results indicate that the ODS alloy of this study gained very high strengths compared to other known ODS alloys, allowing greater plastic zones.