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K. Laber, H. Dyja and M. Kwapisz

Numerical Modelling of the Cooling Ability of Device for the Plain Round Bars Accelerated Cooling Process

The paper presents numerical modelling results of the band accelerated cooling during rolling process. For the numerical modelling the Forge3® and the SortRoll computer programs were used, which based on finite element method.

Research were carried out for one of the bar rolling mill technological conditions. The studies were carried out for 30mm-diameter plain round bars. Constructional steel S355J2G3 (according to DIN St 52-3) was used for the research.

The paper purpose was determination of the cooling ability of device for accelerated cooling process to checking possibility of the using this device in the rolling line, during normalizing rolling process. Investigation results elaborated in the paper made the basis for determination of the heat convection coefficients between cooled band and water for different pressure and water flow.

Open access

K. Laber, H. Dyja, G. Stradomski and A. Kawałek

The paper presents the results of cold upsetting testing of 16.5 mm-diameter 20MnB4 steel wire rod. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of wire rod produced in industrial conditions for further cold metal forming. Due to the fact that cracks occurred in the test material at different strain values, the authors made an attempt to answer the question whether there are any crack initiators in the material structure, or the observed cracks are due to the manufacturing process parameters.

In order to determine the causes of cracks appearing during upsetting tests, micro- and macroscopic observation techniques were used. For the macroscopic examination, an Olympus SZ-31 microscope was used, while a Nikon Ma-200 microscope was employed for the microscopic examination. The microscopic examination was carried out both in a light and dark fields. To evaluate the effect of surface topography on the crack formation tendency, the results of macroscopic observation under a magnification from 6.7x to 45x were used.

Open access

M. Kwapisz, M. Knapiński, H. Dyja and K. Laber

Analysis of the Effect of the Tool Shape on the Stress and Strain Distribution in the Alternate Extrusion and Multiaxial Compression Process

The paper present the results of numerical simulations of the alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression process, performed using commercial software designed for the thermomechanical analysis of plastic working processes, Forge 2009. The novel method of alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression, proposed by the authors, is characterized by the occurrence of strain states in the material being plastically worked, which are similar to those occurring in the equal channel angular pressing and cyclic extrusion compression processes.

It can be found from preliminary studies carried out that the two alternate operations, i.e. extrusion and multiaxial compression, result in a strain accumulation and the formation of a strain state particularly favourable to grain refinement.

As shown by preliminary numerical studies performed by the authors, a zone of large plastic strains forms at the lateral side of the stamping during extrusion of material, which gradually fades along the stamping axis direction. After the multiaxial compression operation, when the material has been brought again to its original shape, the large strains zone moves and then settles in the form of a torus under the stamp. The subsequent extrusion process results in the formation of a new large strains zone being located at the lateral stamping side, and, at the same time, the displacement of the previously deformed material towards its axis. Repeating the above operations many times should bring about large magnitudes of homogeneous deformation within the entire volume of the material examined. The main problem during carrying out practical tests will be to determine the optimal shapes of dies and stamps, which would assure the intended strain state to be obtained in the material, and would also prevent the buckling and overlaps of the material during multiaxial compression.

The distribution of stresses and strains occurring during the compression tests and their correlation with the MaxStrain tests were analyzed within the work. The performed numerical simulations will enable the determination of the proper parameters of the compression test on the Gleeble simulator in order to obtain the strain accumulation which will allow a considerable refinement of the structure.

Open access

T. Bajor, H. Dyja and K. Laber

This study presents the results of physical modelling of the processes of metal forming of bars made of magnesium alloy (AZ61) obtained using two research methodologies. The study employed the Gleeble 3800 testing system for simulation of metallurgical processes and a torsion plastometer. Depending on the research methodology used, the examinations were carried out in the temperature range of 200 ÷ 400°C and strain rate of (0.1 - 10 s-1). The results obtained in the study were used to determine the value of yield stress for AZ61 alloy for different strain procedures and different temperatures and strain ratios.

Open access

K. Laber, A. Kawałek, S. Sawicki, H. Dyja, J. Borowski, D. Leśniak and H. Jurczak


This paper presents the results of the study aimed at determination of plasticity of selected grades of hard-deformed aluminium alloys of 5xxx series in terms of parameters characteristic for the process of extrusion. The examinations were carried out for 5083 and 5754 alloys in the torsion test using STD 812 torsion plastometer. Using the empirical tests, the study evaluated yield stress of alloys depending on strain, strain rate and temperature and the results were approximated and mathematical models of rheological properties of the aluminium grades studied were determined within the range of parameters of deformation and temperature.

Open access

H. Dyja, E. Tussupkaliyeva, T. Bajor and K. Laber


The continuing high level of demand for lightweight structural materials is the reason for the ever-growing interest in aluminum alloys. The main areas of application for aluminum alloys products are the aerospace and automotive industries. Production of profiles and structural elements from lightweight alloys gives possibility to reduce the curb weight of construction, which directly translates into among other reduction of fuel consumption and lower amount of generated exhaust gas.

Determination of heat treatment and plastic working parameters to obtain the required mechanical properties of the manufactured products is a complex process that requires among others knowledge of the material behavior during the deformation process. To carry out the study the torsion plastometer STD 812 was used. On the basis of obtained results of the research the value of the yield stress, formability limit and the thermal effect of the deformed 7xxx series aluminum alloy were specified for different schemes and conditions of deformation.