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K. Naplocha and K. Granat

Abstract

The combustion synthesis of porous skeletons (preforms) of intermetallic Al–Cr compounds intended for metal matrix composite MMC reinforcing was developed. Mixture of Al and Cr powders with granularity of −10, −44, −74mm were cold isostatic pressed and next ignited and synthetized in a microwave reactor under argon atmosphere (microwave-activated combustion synthesis MACS). In order to ignite the synthesis, microwave energy was focused by a tuner on the specimen. The analysis of reaction temperature diagrams revealed that the synthesis proceeded through the following peritectic transformations: L(liquidus)+Al7Cr→L+Al11Cr2→L+Al4Cr. Moreover, EDS and XRD examinations showed that the reaction proceeded between a solid Cr and a liquid Al to create a distinct envelope of Al9Cr4 on Cr particle which next extended and spreaded over the entire structure. The produced preforms with uniform structure and interconnected porosity were infiltrated with liquid Cu and Al alloy. The obtained composite materials exhibited high hardness, wear and distinct temperature oxidation resistance.

Open access

M. Stachowicz and K. Granat

Abstract

The paper presents results of a research on identifying opportunities for effective reclamation of waste molding sand with water-glass, hardened by microwave heating. The molding sand applied in the tests was prepared with use of selected type 145 of sodium water-glass. The sand was sequentially processed by microwave hardening, cooling, thermal loading to 800°C, cooling to ambient temperature, crushing and mechanical reclamation. These stages create a closed processing loop. After each cycle, changes of tensile strength and bending strength were determined. Results of the study show that it is possible to activate surface of high-silica grains of waste foundry sand hardened with microwaves, provided that applied are appropriate processing parameters in successive operation cycles.

Open access

M. Stachowicz, B. Opyd and K. Granat

Abstract

The paper presents a research on abrasion resistance of selected construction materials designed for foundry tooling applied in the innovative microwave heating process of moulding and core sands. One of the main selection criteria of the materials for foundry tooling, in particular for models, moulding boards, moulding boxes and core boxes, is their good abrasive wear resistance. Usability of the selected polymeric materials, designed for foundry tooling used in electromagnetic field, is decided also by other evaluation criteria determined in the examinations, like thermal resistance and electrical properties. Abrasion resistance of the selected materials was determined for three grades of the moulding sand matrixes. Combined analysis of the determined abrasion resistance, considering also electrical properties and thermal resistance of the foundry tooling materials, characterising their usability for microwave heating of moulding and core sands, will make possible their systemising with respect to effectiveness and efficiency of the heating process, taking under consideration durability of such foundry tooling to be used in industrial conditions.

Open access

A. Małachowska, M. Stachowicz and K. Granat

Innovative Microwave Hardening of Water-Glass Containing Sandmixes in Technical-Economic Approach

In recent years, an increasing interest in sandmixes containing inorganic binders has been observed. These binders, including water-glass, are harmless for the environment, neutral for humans, and relatively cheap. In spite of numerous advantages, their wide application is restricted by poor knock-out properties and problems related to rebonding. Therefore, numerous researches aimed at eliminating the disadvantages of water-glass binders are directed, among others, to modifying the structure of hydrated sodium silicate or to applying new hardening techniques. An innovative method of rapid hardening by microwave heating, permitting the restriction of the quantity of binder used and thus improving knock-out properties, meets the expectations of present-day foundries. In this paper, available information is compiled on microwave hardening of water-glass containing sandmixes; furthermore, the costs of practical application of this technology are evaluated on the grounds of the authors' own research.

Open access

D. Nowak, K. Granat and B. Opyd

Abstract

Within the research, carried-out were examinations of foundry rejects in form of waste moulding and core sands in order to determine effectiveness of the microwave utilization process. Presented are measurements of permittivity and loss tangent that determine behaviour of materials in electromagnetic field. Measurements were performed on a stand of waveguide resonance cavity that permits precise determination of the above-mentioned parameters with the perturbation method. Examination results of five waste moulding sands confirm that effectiveness of microwave utilization depends on electrical properties of the sandmixes (permittivity and loss tangent).

Open access

D. Nowak, M. Stachowicz, K. Granat and M. Pigiel

Abstract

The paper presents measurement results of standing wave ratio to be used as an efficiency indicator of microwave absorption by used moulding and core sands chosen for the microwave utilization process. The absorption measurements were made using a prototype stand of microwave slot line. Examined were five used moulding and core sands. It was demonstrated that the microwave absorption measurements can make grounds for actual microwave utilization of moulding and core sands.

Open access

B. Opyd and K. Granat

Abstract

Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining a possibility to use microwave radiation for drying casting protective coatings applied on patterns used in the lost foam technology. Taken were measurements of permittivity ετ and loss factor tgδ at 2.45 GHz, as well as attempts were made of microwave drying of a protective coating based on aluminium silicates, applied on shapes of foamed polystyrene and rigid polymeric foam. Time and results of microwave drying were compared with the results obtained by drying at 50 °C by the traditional method commonly used for removing water from protective coatings. Analysis of the obtained drying kinetics curves demonstrated that selection of proper operation parameters of microwave equipment permits the drying time to be significantly shortened. Depending on kind of the pattern material, drying process of a protective coating runs in a different way, resulting in obtaining different quality of the dried coating.

Open access

M. Stachowicz and K. Granat

Abstract

Moulding sands containing sodium silicate (water-glass) belong to the group of porous mixture with low resistance to increased humidity. Thanks to hydrophilic properties of hardened or even overheated binder, possible is application of effective methods of hydrous reclamation consisting in its secondary hydration. For the same reason (hydrophilia of the binder), moulds and foundry cores made of high-silica moulding sands with sodium silicate are susceptible to the action of components of atmospheric air, including the contained steam. This paper presents results of a research on the effect of (relative) humidity on mechanical and technological properties of microwave-hardened moulding mixtures. Specimens of the moulding sand containing 1.5 wt% of sodium water-glass with module 2.5 were subjected, in a laboratory climatic chamber, to long-term action of steam contained in the chamber atmosphere. Concentration of water in atmospheric air was stabilized for 28 days (672 h) according to the relative humidity parameter that was ca. 40%, 60% and 80% at constant temperature 20 °C. In three cycles of the examinations, the specimens were taken out from the chamber every 7 days (168 h) and their mechanical and technological parameters were determined. It was found on the grounds of laboratory measurements that moulds and cores hardened with microwaves are susceptible to action of atmospheric air and presence of water (as steam) intensifies action of the air components on glassy film of sodium silicate. Microwave-hardened moulding sands containing sodium silicate may be stored on a long-term basis in strictly determined atmospheric conditions only, at reduced humidity. In spite of a negative effect of steam contained in the air, the examined moulding mixtures maintain a part of their mechanical and technological properties, so the moulds and foundry cores stored in specified, controlled conditions could be still used in manufacture.

Open access

K. Granat, B. Opyd, D. Nowak, M. Stachowicz and G. Jaworski

Abstract

The paper describes preliminary examinations on establishing usefulness criteria of foundry tooling materials in the microwave heating technology. Presented are measurement results of permittivity and loss tangent that determine behaviour of the materials in electromagnetic field. The measurements were carried-out in a waveguide resonant cavity that permits precise determination the above-mentioned parameters by perturbation technique. Examined were five different materials designed for use in foundry tooling. Determined was the loss factor that permits evaluating usefulness of materials in microwave heating technology. It was demonstrated that the selected plastics meet the basic criterion that is transparency for electromagnetic radiation.

Open access

B. Opyd and K. Granat

Abstract

The paper presents the results of basic research on the influence of the properties of sand grains on electrical properties of water glass moulding sands. It shows electrical properties of the main component – sand grains, crucial to the kinetics of moulding sands heating, such as permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. Measurements were carried out with the use of the perturbation method for silica, chromite and olivine sands of different mineral, chemical composition and particle size distribution, as well as for moulding sands with water glass grade 145. Analysis of the results of measurements of electrical properties shows that all moulding sands are characterized by a similar permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. It was found that the electrical properties and the quantity and quality of other components may have a decisive influence on the effectiveness and efficiency of the microwave heating of moulding sands with sand grains. In determining the ability to efficiently absorb the microwave radiation for mixtures which moulding sands are, the impact of all components influencing their individual technological parameters should be taken into account.