Analysis of the Effect of the Tool Shape on the Stress and Strain Distribution in the Alternate Extrusion and Multiaxial Compression Process
The paper present the results of numerical simulations of the alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression process, performed using commercial software designed for the thermomechanical analysis of plastic working processes, Forge 2009. The novel method of alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression, proposed by the authors, is characterized by the occurrence of strain states in the material being plastically worked, which are similar to those occurring in the equal channel angular pressing and cyclic extrusion compression processes.
It can be found from preliminary studies carried out that the two alternate operations, i.e. extrusion and multiaxial compression, result in a strain accumulation and the formation of a strain state particularly favourable to grain refinement.
As shown by preliminary numerical studies performed by the authors, a zone of large plastic strains forms at the lateral side of the stamping during extrusion of material, which gradually fades along the stamping axis direction. After the multiaxial compression operation, when the material has been brought again to its original shape, the large strains zone moves and then settles in the form of a torus under the stamp. The subsequent extrusion process results in the formation of a new large strains zone being located at the lateral stamping side, and, at the same time, the displacement of the previously deformed material towards its axis. Repeating the above operations many times should bring about large magnitudes of homogeneous deformation within the entire volume of the material examined. The main problem during carrying out practical tests will be to determine the optimal shapes of dies and stamps, which would assure the intended strain state to be obtained in the material, and would also prevent the buckling and overlaps of the material during multiaxial compression.
The distribution of stresses and strains occurring during the compression tests and their correlation with the MaxStrain tests were analyzed within the work. The performed numerical simulations will enable the determination of the proper parameters of the compression test on the Gleeble simulator in order to obtain the strain accumulation which will allow a considerable refinement of the structure.