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Open access

K. Dyja and W. Więckowski

Abstract

An important factor in the possibility of obtaining correct drawn parts with the desired functional properties is the friction between the stamped sheet and the tool.

The article discusses the impact of technological lubricants developed according to our own formulas, based on vegetable oils, on the stamping process taking into account the strain distributions in the drawn parts. Biodegradable lubricants based on rapeseed oil with an addition of stearic acid or boric acid were used. The results of the friction coefficient in a strip drawing test and the numerical analysis results of the stamping process of a spherical cap from sheet metal: aluminium 2024, commercially pure titanium Grade 2, steel 5604 in dry friction and lubrication conditions, are presented. Strain distributions and changes in the drawn part wall thickness were analysed.

Open access

K. Sobczak, H. Dyja and A. Kawałek

Abstract

The article discusses the influence of rolling in the newly designed slitting-bending grooves on closing internal material discontinuities in continuous ingots. The defects located in the axial area of a strand, i.e. axial porosity and contraction cavity, were analysed. Numerical and experimental studies of the rolling process of flat bars for feedstock with marked materials discontinuities simulating actual defects occurring in an ingot were conducted. For comparison purposes, rolling of feedstock with discontinuities in traditional grooves was conducted. The numerical simulations were carried out using the Forge 2008¯software programme. The experimental studies were conducted in a D150 laboratory rolling mill. In the research, the S355J2G3 structural steel and lead were used. Distributions of temperature, intensity of deformation and stress in a cross-section of strands after rolling were analysed. Changes in the surface areas of the discontinuities in feedstock after rolling in shape and traditional grooves were examined.

It was concluded that introduction of grooves with complex shapes may contribute to the improvement of internal quality of finished products. The complex shape of the tools has allowed for an almost 100% closure of the discontinuities located in the central part of a strand, already at the initial stages of the process, unlike in case of the traditional production method, where the discontinuities were transferred even until the final product. Applying the newly designed slitting-bending grooves enables utilisation of a smaller number of edge grooves at the initial stage of the rolling process, where reopening of freshly welded defects might occur.

Open access

K. Laber, H. Dyja and M. Kwapisz

Numerical Modelling of the Cooling Ability of Device for the Plain Round Bars Accelerated Cooling Process

The paper presents numerical modelling results of the band accelerated cooling during rolling process. For the numerical modelling the Forge3® and the SortRoll computer programs were used, which based on finite element method.

Research were carried out for one of the bar rolling mill technological conditions. The studies were carried out for 30mm-diameter plain round bars. Constructional steel S355J2G3 (according to DIN St 52-3) was used for the research.

The paper purpose was determination of the cooling ability of device for accelerated cooling process to checking possibility of the using this device in the rolling line, during normalizing rolling process. Investigation results elaborated in the paper made the basis for determination of the heat convection coefficients between cooled band and water for different pressure and water flow.

Open access

M. Kwapisz, M. Knapiński, H. Dyja and K. Laber

Analysis of the Effect of the Tool Shape on the Stress and Strain Distribution in the Alternate Extrusion and Multiaxial Compression Process

The paper present the results of numerical simulations of the alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression process, performed using commercial software designed for the thermomechanical analysis of plastic working processes, Forge 2009. The novel method of alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression, proposed by the authors, is characterized by the occurrence of strain states in the material being plastically worked, which are similar to those occurring in the equal channel angular pressing and cyclic extrusion compression processes.

It can be found from preliminary studies carried out that the two alternate operations, i.e. extrusion and multiaxial compression, result in a strain accumulation and the formation of a strain state particularly favourable to grain refinement.

As shown by preliminary numerical studies performed by the authors, a zone of large plastic strains forms at the lateral side of the stamping during extrusion of material, which gradually fades along the stamping axis direction. After the multiaxial compression operation, when the material has been brought again to its original shape, the large strains zone moves and then settles in the form of a torus under the stamp. The subsequent extrusion process results in the formation of a new large strains zone being located at the lateral stamping side, and, at the same time, the displacement of the previously deformed material towards its axis. Repeating the above operations many times should bring about large magnitudes of homogeneous deformation within the entire volume of the material examined. The main problem during carrying out practical tests will be to determine the optimal shapes of dies and stamps, which would assure the intended strain state to be obtained in the material, and would also prevent the buckling and overlaps of the material during multiaxial compression.

The distribution of stresses and strains occurring during the compression tests and their correlation with the MaxStrain tests were analyzed within the work. The performed numerical simulations will enable the determination of the proper parameters of the compression test on the Gleeble simulator in order to obtain the strain accumulation which will allow a considerable refinement of the structure.

Open access

T. Bajor, H. Dyja and K. Laber

This study presents the results of physical modelling of the processes of metal forming of bars made of magnesium alloy (AZ61) obtained using two research methodologies. The study employed the Gleeble 3800 testing system for simulation of metallurgical processes and a torsion plastometer. Depending on the research methodology used, the examinations were carried out in the temperature range of 200 ÷ 400°C and strain rate of (0.1 - 10 s-1). The results obtained in the study were used to determine the value of yield stress for AZ61 alloy for different strain procedures and different temperatures and strain ratios.

Open access

J. Adamus, K. Dyja and M. Motyka

Abstract

The paper presents a method for determining forming limit curves based on a combination of experiments with finite element analysis. In the experiment a set of 6 samples with different geometries underwent plastic deformation in stretch forming till the appearance of fracture. The heights of the stamped parts at fracture moment were measured. The sheet - metal forming process for each sample was numerically simulated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The values of the calculated plastic strains at the moment when the simulated cup reaches the height of the real cup at fracture initiation were marked on the FLC. FLCs for stainless steel sheets: ASM 5504, 5596 and 5599 have been determined. The resultant FLCs are then used in the numerical simulations of sheet - metal forming. A comparison between the strains in the numerically simulated drawn - parts and limit strains gives the information if the sheet - metal forming process was designed properly.

Open access

W. Więckowski and K. Dyja

Abstract

The paper evaluates the drawability of titanium sheet metal Grade 2, with the focus on friction conditions that are present in the sheet metal forming process. The study aims to present the results of the examinations of the friction coefficient during a strip drawing test. The focus of the experiment was on lubricants based on vegetable oils i.e. rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and olive oil. Boric acid was used to improve the lubricating properties of vegetable oils. The results of numerical simulations of the process of forming a cover with stiffening components made of grade 2 titanium sheet metal was also presented. The numerical simulation was carried out using the FEM method with PAMStamp 2G software. The effect of conditions of friction between the sheet metal and tool parts and pressure force of the blank holder on the forming process were investigated. Numerical calculations were performed with consideration for the phenomenon of material strain hardening and anisotropy of plastic properties of the sheet metal formed. The analysis of the deformations and reduction in wall thickness of the drawn parts can be used for determination of the effect of changes in selected parameters on the process of drawn part forming. The quality of drawn parts was assessed based on the shape inaccuracy determined during simulation of forming. The inaccuracy depended on the conditions of the process and strength properties of the titanium sheet metal.

Open access

H. Dyja, E. Tussupkaliyeva, T. Bajor and K. Laber

Abstract

The continuing high level of demand for lightweight structural materials is the reason for the ever-growing interest in aluminum alloys. The main areas of application for aluminum alloys products are the aerospace and automotive industries. Production of profiles and structural elements from lightweight alloys gives possibility to reduce the curb weight of construction, which directly translates into among other reduction of fuel consumption and lower amount of generated exhaust gas.

Determination of heat treatment and plastic working parameters to obtain the required mechanical properties of the manufactured products is a complex process that requires among others knowledge of the material behavior during the deformation process. To carry out the study the torsion plastometer STD 812 was used. On the basis of obtained results of the research the value of the yield stress, formability limit and the thermal effect of the deformed 7xxx series aluminum alloy were specified for different schemes and conditions of deformation.

Open access

A. Kawałek, H. Dyja, A.M. Gałkin, K.V. Ozhmegov and S. Sawicki

Abstract

The article presents results of physical modelling of processes of plastic working of the modified Zr-1%Nb zirconium alloy, obtained using different methods of the plastometric testing. The „Gleeble 3800‚ metallurgical process simulator, a DIL805 A/D dilatometer with a plastometric attachment, and a „Setaram‚ plastometer were used for testing. Based on the obtained testing results, the values of the yield stress and limiting plasticity of the tested alloy were determined for wide ranges of temperature variation (?=20÷950 °?) and strain rate variation (=0.1÷15.0 s-1) under continuous loading conditions. It was found that by using different testing methods, different alloy properties, characteristic for a given plastic working process, could be obtained.

Open access

K. Laber, H. Dyja, G. Stradomski and A. Kawałek

The paper presents the results of cold upsetting testing of 16.5 mm-diameter 20MnB4 steel wire rod. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of wire rod produced in industrial conditions for further cold metal forming. Due to the fact that cracks occurred in the test material at different strain values, the authors made an attempt to answer the question whether there are any crack initiators in the material structure, or the observed cracks are due to the manufacturing process parameters.

In order to determine the causes of cracks appearing during upsetting tests, micro- and macroscopic observation techniques were used. For the macroscopic examination, an Olympus SZ-31 microscope was used, while a Nikon Ma-200 microscope was employed for the microscopic examination. The microscopic examination was carried out both in a light and dark fields. To evaluate the effect of surface topography on the crack formation tendency, the results of macroscopic observation under a magnification from 6.7x to 45x were used.