Y. H. Peng, Z. X. Lu, K. Chen, O. Luukkanen, H. Korpelainen and Chun Yang Li
In this study, the genetic diversity of Populus cathayana Rehd was investigated using microsatellite markers. In a total of 150 individuals collected from six natural populations in the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China, a high level of microsatellite polymorphism was detected. At the seven investigated microsatellite loci, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 16, with a mean of 11.3, the observed heterozygosities across populations ranged from 0.408 to 0.986, with a mean of 0.792, and the expected heterozygosities across populations ranged from 0.511 to 0.891, with a mean of 0.802. The proportion of genetic differentiation among populations accounted for 37.3% of the whole genetic diversity. The presence of such a high level of genetic diversity could be attributed to the features of the species and the habitats where the sampled populations occur: The southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as the natural distribution and variation center of the genus Populus in China. Variation in environmental conditions and selection pressures in different populations, and topographic dispersal barriers could be factors associated with the high level of genetic differentiation found among populations. The populations possessed significant heterozygosity excesses, which may be due to extensive population mixing at the local scale. The cluster analysis showed that the populations are not strictly grouped according to their geographic distances but the habitat characteristics also influence the divergence pattern. In addition, we suggest that population SHY should be regarded as an ecologically divergent species of P. cathayana.
Factorial mating crosses of Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis (3 x 5), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis (3 x 3) and E. urophylla × E. exserta (3 x 3) were used for genetic analysis of growth traits and susceptibility to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). Genetic effects including female, male and female × male interaction were examined for height (H) and diameter at breast height (DBH) at age five as well as final bacterial wilt index (BWI) in both nursery inoculation and field assessment by five years of age. Female, male and female x male variances appeared to have a significant role in growth traits H and DBH though their magnitude varied for the factorials studied. For the trait BWI additive (male) and dominant (female x male) effects were both involved in the genetics of bacterial wilt susceptibility, and additive was the major. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability (h2) for H, DBH and BWI ranged from 0.11 ± 0.06 to 0.70 ± 0.09, varying with either trait or factorial. Growth traits (H and DBH) had low and non-significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with BWI in all the three factorials, ranging from -0.10 ± 0.08 to 0.17 ± 0.14 in coefficient of correlation. This indicates that it may be possible to select superior trees with both fast growth and high resistance to bacterial wilt in eucalypt hybrid populations in operational breeding programs.
3-Oxo-α-ionol ethyl carbonate, a precursor of megastigmatrienones was prepared by reduction of α-ionone to α-ionol, followed by esterification with ethyl chloroformate and then by oxidation with t-butyl chromate. The total yield was about 23%. Infrared (IR) and mass spectra of this compound were determined. Upon smoking, cigarettes to which 0.002% by weight of the titled compound was added had an improved and more harmonious flavor. The smoke was sweeter and had a cleaner after taste. Experimental results suggest that the title compound added to the tobacco pyrolyzes to form megastigmatrienones during smoking.
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices use public (non-encrypted) advertising channels to announce their presence to other devices. To prevent tracking on these public channels, devices may use a periodically changing, randomized address instead of their permanent Media Access Control (MAC) address. In this work we show that many state-of-the-art devices which are implementing such anonymization measures are vulnerable to passive tracking that extends well beyond their address randomization cycles. We show that it is possible to extract identifying tokens from the pay-load of advertising messages for tracking purposes. We present an address-carryover algorithm which exploits the asynchronous nature of payload and address changes to achieve tracking beyond the address randomization of a device. We furthermore identify an identity-exposing attack via a device accessory that allows permanent, non-continuous tracking, as well as an iOS side-channel which allows insights into user activity. Finally, we provide countermeasures against the presented algorithm and other privacy flaws in BLE advertising.
With the fast development of power electronics techniques, electrification of shipboard power systems (SPS) is an unstoppable trend, and the concepts of electric ships (ESs) and all-electric ships (AESs) emerge. In order to meet the constantly increasing electricity demand in SPS, the medium voltage direct current (MVDC) SPS becomes a promising shipboard electrical network architecture. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of the design, control, power management, system stability and reliability in ESs. The most recent technologies and academic achievements in these fields are discussed. In the near future, it is possible that the electric propulsion technology will be widely applied to various types of ships.
Multi-tenant data management is an important part of supporting efficient operation of software as a service application. Multi-tenant data use shared schema to reduce resource usage cost. However, massive data of different tenants are stored in the same schema, which causes useless data of other tenants to be read when a tenant just need access its own disk data. In this paper we focus on disk storage method of multi-tenant data based on shared schema to address the above low efficiency of data access. According to isolation requirement of multitenant data, we store a tenant’s data in some contiguous disk blocks. The experimental results illustrate that query efficiency in range query and join query is 1.5–2 times the existing storage method, and no indexing query efficiency improves 10–70 times.
S. E. Mckeand, B. Li, J. E. Grissom, F. Isik and K. J. S. Jayawickrama
Variation in heritability and in genetic correlation estimates were evaluated for juvenile tree height and volume for six testing areas of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the southeastern United States. Variance components and their functions (heritability and type B genetic correlations) were estimated from 265 six-parent disconnected diallel series, tested in almost 1000 trials (4 tests per diallel series). Original data were collected at age 6 years from about one million trees (265 diallel series x 30 crosses x 36 trees per cross/site x 4 sites) planted in field tests. Genetic tests were from the second cycle of breeding in the North Carolina State University - Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program. The overall unbiased individual-tree narrow-sense heritability for height was 0.19 and for volume was 0.16. The broad-sense heritabilities for height (0.24) and for volume (0.22) were higher than narrow-sense heritabilities due to the presence of non-additive genetic variance. There were moderate regional differences in these estimates, with tests in the Lower Gulf Coastal Plain tending to have the highest heritabilities for growth traits. There was very little association between site index and heritability, but heritabilities were higher on sites with the highest survival and highest test precision. Genotype x environment interactions were generally low both for half-sib and full-sib families, indicating that families can be operationally deployed to different sites with little concern about unpredictable performance.
L. Zhang, N. Huanqiong, Washington J. Gapare, S. K. Dillon, X. Li and H. X. Wu
Genetic diversity within radiata pine first generation of open-pollinated selections (OPS) from the native resource stands was compared with that observed in native populations to monitor potential changes in genetic diversity during domestication. Genetic diversity was estimated using 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 8 expressed genes. Nucleotide diversity maintained in first generation of selections (OPS) (mean π = 0.0036; mean θw = 0.0058) was similar to that found within the native population material (mean π = 0.0043; mean for θw = 0.0065). Likewise, mean values for expected heterozygosity (HE) within and between native population material and OPS were similar (mean = 0.27 ± 0.04) and not significantly different (P = 0.068). Also, the overall distribution of allele frequency classes was not significantly different between native population material and OPS. These results point to no evidence of loss of diversity in OPS due to artificial selection. One possible reason is that the domestication of the OPS is at a very early stage. Another may be that artificial selection in the OPS was based on tree growth and form, not wood properties. The genes selected in this study are mostly involved in cell wall formation, thus genetic diversity of these genes should remain stable between natural population and OPS, unless there was a significant sampling bias in the OPS. Although the SNP information suggests similarities among mainland populations, results from quantitative genetic studies found large provenance differences for growth-, morphological-, stem-form traits, and disease resistance. Determining the threshold at which genetic diversity levels will be significantly reduced during selection should help breeders to make informed decisions regarding the intensity of selection in managed breeding populations as well as gene resource populations.
Kuppalapalle Vajravelu, Ronald Li, Mangalagama Dewasurendra, Joseph Benarroch, Nicholas Ossi, Ying Zhang, Michael Sammarco and K.V. Prasad
In this paper, boundary layer flow over a moving flat plate with second-order velocity slip, injection and applied magnetic field is analyzed. The governing partial differential equations are converted in to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation through an appropriate similarity transformation. The resulting nonlinear equation is solved via homotopy analysis method (HAM). Errors ranging from 10–7 to 10–10 are reported for a relatively few terms. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the velocity and the shear stress are presented graphically and discussed. In the absence of magnetic field and the two slip parameters, the results are found to be in excellent agreement with the available results in the literature. It is expected that the results obtained will not only provide useful information for industrial applications but also complement the earlier works.
Jianping Chen, Zhonggui Li, Ken Y. Z. Zheng, Ava J. Y. Guo, Kevin Y. Zhu, Wendy L. Zhang, Janis Y. X. Zhan, Tina T. X. Dong, Ziren Su and Karl W. K. Tsim
Gleditsiae Fructus Abnormalis and Gleditsiae Sinensis Fructus are obtained from different developmental stages of fruits from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (Leguminosae). The possible interchangeable usage of the two fruits, however, has long been very controversial. Here, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection was developed to explore their chemical fingerprinting profiles. Besides, the amounts of aglycones of saponin compounds, echinocystic acid and oleanolic acid in both fruits were quantified. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the content of aglycones from the two types of fruits. However, their chromatographic fingerprints showed distinct characteristics. Therefore, the interchangeable application of these fruits has to be taken with a specific precaution.