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Open access

Dagnija Rostoka, Juta Kroiča, Aigars Reinis and Valentīna Kuzņecova

The role of oral anaerobic bacteria, and influence of social and health factors in halitosis aethiology

The aim of this work was to identify the bacteria associated with halitosis, and by questionnaire to test whether diet, oral hygiene habits and illness factors were associated with bacterial amounts in the oral cavity and the Il-1α/Il-1β polymorphism. Bad breath is a frequent problem in Latvia and for many patients may cause important emotional and psychological distress. As there are different causes of halitosis, this might be also reflected in the bacterial community of the oral cavity. The concentration of bacteria in the oral cavity was significantly higher in halitosis patients than in the studied control group, who did not complain about halitosis. The PCR results corresponded with halimetric values. The main cause of halitosis was found to be oral pathology — increased amounts of oral anaerobic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythietensis, Treponema denticola, and Prevotella intermedia.

Open access

Diana Platace, Ilze Klava, Lilija Antonevica, Aigars Reinis, Valentina Kuznecova, Juta Kroica and Inga Millere

The Study of the Risk Factors of Health Care - Associated Infections in Patients' Care with Invasive Devices

Introduction. Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major threat to patient safety. The spread of HAIs cases in intensive care units (ICUs) and in surgical units is influenced by the severity of the patients' condition, as well as the number of invasive procedures and the environment of the units. The immune systems of critically ill patients are in a severe state which increases the probability of beneficial conditions for a colonisation by pathogenic microorganisms due to invasive procedures. Furthermore, the action of inserting an invasive device (urinary catheter, peripheral vein catheter) disrupts the natural defence mechanisms by itself.

Aim of the study. To determine risk factors of HAIs during invasive procedures: peripheral vein catheter and urinary catheter insertion and care at the time.

Materials and methods. The research was performed in the ICUs and in the surgical units of Latvia's regional multi-profile hospitals (n=3), using the quantitative research method: questionnaire (n=188), and qualitative research methods: clinically structured empiric research (n=45) and microbiological tests (n=86): a) with a Count-Tact applicator and a special culture medium, b) with a swab, and c) with catheter sedimentation method.

Results. The study results showed that surgical nurses take care of 18 to 40 patients per day, while intensive care nurses take care of 2 to 3 patients per day. A common problem identified in ICUs and in surgical units related to the lack of unified nursing protocols on performing invasive procedures in all cases (100%; 45/45). Microbiological investigations showed a high level of bio-contamination during invasive procedures: the amount of microorganisms on the nurses' hands considerably exceeded the acceptable levels in all cases (100%; 4/4), and medium to high levels of bio-contamination were discovered on patient's changed bed sheets (100%; 2/2) as well as in nurses' hair (85.7%; 48/56) and their work wear (78.5%; 44/56). In 25% of the observed cases Staphylococcus aureus was discovered in the sterile zone of the peripheral vein catheter 72 hours and 96 hours after the catheter's insertion. 72 hours after the catheter's insertion, as well as 7 days after the insertion of a urinary catheter, 100% of the cases revealed the presence of at least one and in some cases several of the following pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, β haemolytic Streptococcus and fungi, such as Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis.

Conclusions. The main risk factors of HAIs in patients' care using invasive devices are: the lack of unified nursing protocols, aseptic and antiseptic mistakes and excessive workload, as well as a high level of bio-contamination in the ICUs and in surgical units.

Open access

Evija Balode, Mara Pilmane, Dace Rezeberga, Irina Jermakova and Juta Kroica


Introduction. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common form of cancer in women [19]. The precancerous stages are divided into three distinctive stages, labelled cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, II and III. One of the aetiological factors is chronic inflammation in cervical tissue, most often induced by Human papilloma virus (HPV). 88,5% of the patients regress from low grade intraepithelial changes to unchanged epithelium [14]. It has been proposed that cytokine balance plays a key role in the development of high grade epithelial changes (CIN I – CIN III) in the remaining 11.5% of patients, however, the exact trigger of this event remains to be found.

Aim of the Study. The aim of the study was to determine three pro-inflammatory (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8) and one anti-inflammatory (IL-10) interleukin expression in different CIN cervix uteri biopsies.

Material and methods. 16 biopsies were obtained with different CIN staging: one with CIN I stage, five with CIN II stage and 10 with CIN III stage. The samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry for IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Slides were evaluated semi-quantitatively grading the intensity of positively stained structures in the visual field.

Results. Examination of the samples yielded the following: IL-1α expression increased from CIN II to CIN III in squamous epithelium, while IL-8 expression decreased. A few IL-1α containing inflammatory cells were found in all CIN stages. IL-8 expression in subepithelium and the number of inflammatory cells decreased from CIN II stage to CIN III, although, it increased in the blood vessel endothelium.

Conclusions. There was constant moderate expression of both IL-6 and IL-10 during all CIN stages, except for inflammatory cells, where IL-6 expression was high during all stages, yet there were few IL-10 containing cells during CIN. The balanced expression of both cytokines suggests that pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance has an important role in CIN morfopathogenesis. The high expression of IL-6 in inflammatory cells and constant expression trough CIN staging indicates sustentation of chronic inflammation and production of other cytokines, such as IL-8, IL-1α. The variable IL-8 expression and its decrease in CIN III stage suggests the depletion of IL-8 production. The high expression of cytokines in blood vessel endothelium indicates their important role in CIN morfopathogenesis.

Open access

Juta Kroiča, Ingus Skadiņš, Ilze Salma, Aigars Reinis, Marina Sokolova, Dagnija Rostoka and Natālija Bērza


Infections continue to spread in all fields of medicine, and especially in the field of implant biomaterial surgery, and not only during the surgery, but also after surgery. Reducing the adhesion of bacteria could decrease the possibility of biomaterial-associated infections. Bacterial adhesion could be reduced by local antibiotic release from the biomaterial. In this in vitro study, hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers were tested for their ability to reduce bacteria adhesion and biofilm development. This study examined the antibacterial efficiency of hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study found that hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers show longer antibacterial properties than hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics against both bacterial cultures. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrated that biomaterials that are coated with biodegradable polymers release antibiotics from biomaterial samples for a longer period of time and may be useful for reducing bacterial adhesion on orthopedic implants.

Open access

Miļuna Sintija, Dagnija Rostoka, Ingus Skadińš, Aigars Reinis, Viktorija Priedīte, Rudīte Koka, Didzis Lauva and Juta Kroiča


Snus is a tobacco product containing nicotine and is widely used in Sweden. Now it is becoming more and more popular among young athletes and teenagers in Latvia, even though it is forbidden for sale in the European Union. The use of snus is considered to induce various oral illnesses, especially periodontal diseases, diabetes, heart and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. Comparison of the microbiome of saliva and tooth biofilm in snus tobacco users with that in people who never use snus showed that, the number and diversity of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms was much higher in samples taken from snus users. The observed features of the oral microbiome, such as the presence of periodontal pathogens and their high concentration, may have adverse effect on periodontal tissues of snus users and their general health in the future.