The role of oral anaerobic bacteria, and influence of social and health factors in halitosis aethiology
The aim of this work was to identify the bacteria associated with halitosis, and by questionnaire to test whether diet, oral hygiene habits and illness factors were associated with bacterial amounts in the oral cavity and the Il-1α/Il-1β polymorphism. Bad breath is a frequent problem in Latvia and for many patients may cause important emotional and psychological distress. As there are different causes of halitosis, this might be also reflected in the bacterial community of the oral cavity. The concentration of bacteria in the oral cavity was significantly higher in halitosis patients than in the studied control group, who did not complain about halitosis. The PCR results corresponded with halimetric values. The main cause of halitosis was found to be oral pathology — increased amounts of oral anaerobic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythietensis, Treponema denticola, and Prevotella intermedia.
Local antibiotic therapy has several advantages over systemic antibiotic treatment. Using antibiotics in local biomaterial systems can reduce the number of microorganisms that can adhere to implanted biomaterials. In this in vitro study, antibacterial properties of hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers were examined. The antibacterial efficiency of hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied by evaluating the expression of inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-10 (IL-10), -defensin-2 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF- )) in tissue surrounding implanted biomaterials in vivo. The results of this study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers had a prolonged antibacterial effect in comparison to biomaterials without biodegradable polymers. Surrounding tissue displayed higher levels of inflammatory cytokines when implanted biomaterials had not been previously impregnated with antibiotics.
Bone graft transplantation is one of the most common transplants in the world and there has been a significant increase in the use of biomaterials in this sector. Bone substitutes are widely used in traumatology, orthopaedics, maxillofacial surgery and dentistry. The culturing method was used to determine microorganism ability to attach and form biofilms on originally synthesised porous TiO2 and TiO2Ag ceramics. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the intensity of adhesion and colonisation of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans on TiO2 and TiO2Ag ceramics. The lowest adhesion and colonisation were on TiO2Ag samples for S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa.No C. albicans adhesion and colonisation differences were found on TiO2 and TiO2Ag ceramic samples.
Infections continue to spread in all fields of medicine, and especially in the field of implant biomaterial surgery, and not only during the surgery, but also after surgery. Reducing the adhesion of bacteria could decrease the possibility of biomaterial-associated infections. Bacterial adhesion could be reduced by local antibiotic release from the biomaterial. In this in vitro study, hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers were tested for their ability to reduce bacteria adhesion and biofilm development. This study examined the antibacterial efficiency of hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study found that hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers show longer antibacterial properties than hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics against both bacterial cultures. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrated that biomaterials that are coated with biodegradable polymers release antibiotics from biomaterial samples for a longer period of time and may be useful for reducing bacterial adhesion on orthopedic implants.
Snus is a tobacco product containing nicotine and is widely used in Sweden. Now it is becoming more and more popular among young athletes and teenagers in Latvia, even though it is forbidden for sale in the European Union. The use of snus is considered to induce various oral illnesses, especially periodontal diseases, diabetes, heart and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. Comparison of the microbiome of saliva and tooth biofilm in snus tobacco users with that in people who never use snus showed that, the number and diversity of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms was much higher in samples taken from snus users. The observed features of the oral microbiome, such as the presence of periodontal pathogens and their high concentration, may have adverse effect on periodontal tissues of snus users and their general health in the future.
Treatment strategies for acute uncomplicated appendicitis have evolved and now conservative antibacterial treatment is recommended over surgical treatment, especially for paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiota in paediatric patients with acute uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, and antibacterial susceptibility of the causative microorganisms. Bacteriological identification was conducted using the VITEK2 analyser. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were performed and the results were evaluated in accordance with the recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) “Clinical breakpoints and dosing of antibiotics” (Version 7.0, January 2019). Serodiagnosis of Yersinia enterocolitica was performed using indirect haemagglutination. The results revealed differences in microbiota in cases of acute complicated and acute uncomplicated appendicitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified more frequently in cases of acute complicated appendicitis. Mixed culture was prevalent in cases of both acute complicated and acute uncomplicated appendicitis. Very few positive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli cultures were identified. Most of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ertapenem, ampicillin and cefotaxime. Some of E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin and to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid.