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Dagnija Rostoka, Juta Kroiča, Aigars Reinis and Valentīna Kuzņecova

The role of oral anaerobic bacteria, and influence of social and health factors in halitosis aethiology

The aim of this work was to identify the bacteria associated with halitosis, and by questionnaire to test whether diet, oral hygiene habits and illness factors were associated with bacterial amounts in the oral cavity and the Il-1α/Il-1β polymorphism. Bad breath is a frequent problem in Latvia and for many patients may cause important emotional and psychological distress. As there are different causes of halitosis, this might be also reflected in the bacterial community of the oral cavity. The concentration of bacteria in the oral cavity was significantly higher in halitosis patients than in the studied control group, who did not complain about halitosis. The PCR results corresponded with halimetric values. The main cause of halitosis was found to be oral pathology — increased amounts of oral anaerobic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythietensis, Treponema denticola, and Prevotella intermedia.

Open access

Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča, Ilze Salma, Aigars Reinis, Marina Sokolova and Dagnija Rostoka

Abstract

Local antibiotic therapy has several advantages over systemic antibiotic treatment. Using antibiotics in local biomaterial systems can reduce the number of microorganisms that can adhere to implanted biomaterials. In this in vitro study, antibacterial properties of hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers were examined. The antibacterial efficiency of hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied by evaluating the expression of inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-10 (IL-10), -defensin-2 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF- )) in tissue surrounding implanted biomaterials in vivo. The results of this study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite biomaterials impregnated with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers had a prolonged antibacterial effect in comparison to biomaterials without biodegradable polymers. Surrounding tissue displayed higher levels of inflammatory cytokines when implanted biomaterials had not been previously impregnated with antibiotics.

Open access

Miļuna Sintija, Dagnija Rostoka, Ingus Skadińš, Aigars Reinis, Viktorija Priedīte, Rudīte Koka, Didzis Lauva and Juta Kroiča

Abstract

Snus is a tobacco product containing nicotine and is widely used in Sweden. Now it is becoming more and more popular among young athletes and teenagers in Latvia, even though it is forbidden for sale in the European Union. The use of snus is considered to induce various oral illnesses, especially periodontal diseases, diabetes, heart and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. Comparison of the microbiome of saliva and tooth biofilm in snus tobacco users with that in people who never use snus showed that, the number and diversity of periodontal pathogenic microorganisms was much higher in samples taken from snus users. The observed features of the oral microbiome, such as the presence of periodontal pathogens and their high concentration, may have adverse effect on periodontal tissues of snus users and their general health in the future.

Open access

Juta Kroiča, Ingus Skadiņš, Ilze Salma, Aigars Reinis, Marina Sokolova, Dagnija Rostoka and Natālija Bērza

Abstract

Infections continue to spread in all fields of medicine, and especially in the field of implant biomaterial surgery, and not only during the surgery, but also after surgery. Reducing the adhesion of bacteria could decrease the possibility of biomaterial-associated infections. Bacterial adhesion could be reduced by local antibiotic release from the biomaterial. In this in vitro study, hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers were tested for their ability to reduce bacteria adhesion and biofilm development. This study examined the antibacterial efficiency of hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study found that hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics and biodegradable polymers show longer antibacterial properties than hydroxyapatite biomaterials with antibiotics against both bacterial cultures. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrated that biomaterials that are coated with biodegradable polymers release antibiotics from biomaterial samples for a longer period of time and may be useful for reducing bacterial adhesion on orthopedic implants.