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Open access

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek and Karolina Beyga

Analysis of the Relationship Between Fatness of Late Pregnant and Lactating Sows and Selected Lipid Parameters of Blood, Colostrum and Milk

This study determined the relationships between backfat thickness in sows on day 104 (±2) of pregnancy, changes in fatness between high pregnancy and lactation (day 21), the body weight of late pregnant sows, the level of selected lipid parameters in blood serum, and basic components and fatty acid profile of colostrum and milk. Backfat measurements were taken using an ultrasound device at the P1, P2, P3 and P4 sites and loin eye height was measured at the P4M site. In late pregnant sows, fatness measured at P1, P2, P3 and P4 and the mean of measurements taken at P2 and P4 were correlated with HDL (+0.491**, +0.537**, +0.439*, +0.483** and 0.529**, respectively). Measurements taken at P4 and the mean of P2 and P4 were correlated with cholesterol (CHOL, +0.367* and +0.372*, respectively). Correlations were also found between the level of fatness of pregnant sows (P2, P3, P4, (P2 + P4)/2) and the level of HDL at the end of lactation (+0.534**, +0.440*, +0.412* and +0.487**, respectively). The body weight of late pregnant sows was significantly correlated with the energy and fat levels in colostrum (-0.467** and -0.429*, respectively). In addition, it was correlated with the proportion of fatty acids in the profile (C18:2 +0.417*, C18:3 +0.493*). Correlations were observed between P1 backfat thickness and the proportion of colostrum fatty acids (C18:1 +0.483*, CLA +0.475*), and between P2 backfat thickness and the C20:4 content of milk (-0.421*). A relationship between backfat thickness measured at farrowing and the levels of selected fatty acids in colostrum was found for P2 and C18:3 (+0.471*), P3 and C18:0 (-0.608**), C18:2 (+0.463*) and C18:3 (+0.517*), and P4M and C16:1 (-0.513*). The greater the difference in P1 backfat thickness between late pregnancy and weaning, the higher the content of fat (+0.549**), energy (+0.510*), C18:0 (+0.493*) and CLA (+0.488*), and the lower the content of C14:0 (-0.512*) and C16:0 (-0.457*) in milk. The strong correlations of fatness in late pregnant sows and of changes in fatness during late pregnancy and weaning with some blood, colostrum and milk parameters suggest that sows should be evaluated for fatness during their productive life.

Open access

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Bartosik, Justyna Więcek, Martyna Batorska, Beata Kuczyńska and Anna Łojek

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine how different birth weights of piglets influence some chemical and physical characteristics of pig meat. Piglets were grouped according to birth weight: ≤1.30 kg (group I), 1.31-1.70 kg (group II), ≥1.71 kg (group III). Animals were reared and fattened under standardized housing and feeding conditions. Tests were conducted with 60 samples of meat (20 per group) collected from the right side of the carcasses (M. longissimus lumborum) of threebreed crosses of (Polish Landrace × Polish Large White) × Duroc (barrows to gilts, 1:1), which were slaughtered at about 180 days of age. Determinations were made of basic chemical composition, colour of meat, drip loss, shear force value, and fatty acid profile. It was found that the birth weight of the piglets affects meat colour (redness), crude fat content and the proportion of some fatty acids (C16:1, C20:1 n-9, C20:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3).

Open access

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek, Monika Wojtasik, Jarosław Ptak, Tadeusz Blicharski and Leszek Mroczko

Effect of Sex Ratio in the Litter in Which Polish Large White and Polish Landrace Sows were Born on the Number of Piglets Born and Reared

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex ratio in the litter in which Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) sows were born on the number of piglets born and reared to 21 days of age. Results obtained in nucleus herds from one breeding region were analysed. A total of 518 multiparous sows (179 PLW and 339 PL) were evaluated based on data from their litters (790 PLW and 1540 PL litters). The proportion of females in the litter in which the sow was born served as a basis for dividing the females into groups: group 1 <40%, group 2 - 40-50%, group 3 - 50-60%, group 4 - 60-70%, group 5 >70%. Significant differences in the average number of piglets born were found between the groups for PLW sows; compared to sows from groups 1, 2 and 3, females from group 5 gave birth to 8.0% (P≤0.05), 9.4% (P≤0.01) and 6.6% more piglets (P≤0.01), respectively, and compared to sows from group 2, those from group 4 gave birth to 5.1% more piglets (P≤0.05). The average number of piglets born and reared to 21 days by PL sows did not differ significantly between groups. The greater the proportion of females in the litter in which the PLW sow was born, the greater the preweaning mortality of piglets: 0.79, 0.87, 0.99, 1.02 and 1.24 piglets in groups 1 to 5, respectively. Preweaning mortality of PL piglets (0.93, 0.89, 0.81, 0.76 and 0.65 in groups 1 to 5, respectively) decreased with increasing proportion of females in the litter of origin and was lower than that of PLW piglets. It seems appropriate to account for the sex ratio of the litter in which the gilts were born when selecting them as mothers of the next generation as part of herd replacement; this parameter may improve fertility and production efficiency.

Open access

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek, Martyna Batorska and Józef Kulisiewicz

Abstract

Weakened growth and development of embryos as well as of fetuses or their organs (IUGR) show a relationship with increasing sow fertility. When aiming to increase birth weight in piglets and reduce within-litter variation in piglet body weight, efforts should be made to maintain a favourable maternal environment (uterus-placenta-embryo). Intrauterine undernutrition can be limited through the hormonal and/or nutritional treatment of pregnant sows. This has an effect on prenatal myogenesis, resulting in better development of skeletal muscles, higher birth weight of piglets, and progression in postnatal growth rate.

Open access

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek, Martyna Batorska and Józef Kulisiewicz

Abstract

Piglet birth weight is determined by the maternal environment, intrauterine crowding, and nutrition, which influence embryonic and fetal survival and, as a result, fertility. The internal environment regulates prenatal myogenesis and muscle fibre number nutritionally and hormonally. The growth and metabolic differentiation of muscle fibres take place during the postnatal period. The effect of intrauterine undernutrition on myogenesis and on fetal growth and development (IUGR) is reflected in the low piglet birth weight and its high within-litter variation. Slaughter traits are determined by many factors, including genetic (breed), environmental (nutrition) and preslaughter handling. Slaughter traits and the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat are dependent on prenatal myogenesis and neonatal weight. Optimized body weight of newborn piglets is conducive to improving quantitative traits (meatiness, fatness) and qualitative traits. However, slaughter traits are also influenced by many other differentiating factors, which is reflected in research results. Muscle fibres become metabolically differentiated during postnatal development, and one of the factors of large variation in pig meat quality traits is variation in the proportions of different fibre types in mature muscle. Considering the divergent opinions among scientists about the effect of prenatal myogenesis and piglet birth weight on slaughter value and pork quality, as well as the existence of areas that have received little investigation, it is justified to continue research in this area.