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Justyna Wiland-Szymańska

The genus Hypoxis L. (Hypoxidaceae) in the East Tropical

A complete key with full descriptions and distributions of all known Hypoxis taxa found in the East Tropical Africa is presented in the monograph. The morphology of all species, subspecies and varieties is described, including such important taxonomic characters for this genus like tuber flesh color, tunic type, indumentum and seed testa sculpture. A succulent leaf structure is described for H. kilimanjarica var. prostrata. The anatomical studies were conducted as a part of taxonomical analysis. They have positively evaluated a taxonomic significance of leaf anatomy characters, such as succulent structure, occurrence of bulliform cells in epidermis outside the keel zone, type and distribution of trichomes. The studies of the Hypoxis leaf anatomy added new data concerning anatomical differentiation of the cataphylls and the inner leaves. Also differentiated mesophyll and simultaneous presence of different types of stomata on one leaf are reported. It has been shown that in some species mucilage canals are present in the inner leaves and that this character is not constant. The number of vascular bundles, which can be determined only on the basis of a leaf section, is useful only in species with a small number of veins, not increasing with a plant age. Because of lack of constancy in distribution, number of stomata accessory cells cannot be used as a diversifying character for the East African species of Hypoxis. The wax crystals are revealed to exist in many species of Hypoxis. The anatomical characters of scapes were also studied in a taxonomic context. A sclerenchyma distribution, as well as number of vascular bundles can be used for a species determination. The presence of sclerenchyma prevents the scapes from bending down after anthesis. The studies of phenology revealed that there are two groups of taxa, one with a resting period and the other without it. It is connected with a climate in which the species occurs. The study of distribution maps of the species occurring in the East Africa are provided for this area, as well as for their entire range. This new knowledge, along with a revision of literature data, led to a new conclusion as to a number of all Hypoxis species in Africa, which is now estimated to be 55. The revision demonstrates that distribution of many of the Hypoxis species is connected with White's phytochoria. It proves that not only South Africa, but also the Zambesian Region is a very important center of diversity of this genus. The number of endemic taxa of Hypoxis for the East Tropical Africa is very low, including only one species and one subspecies. Additionally, a study of vertical ranges of Hypoxis is presented. It reveals that most of the species in East Africa grow in the mountains and they show preferences of dispersal in particular altitudinal levels. The analysis of the vertical distribution within the entire ranges of different taxa has showed differences in the altitudinal position depending on the geographic location. The human influence on Hypoxis is studied in terms of their use in folk medicine and believes. Most of the species of Hypoxis survive quite well in East Africa, being a visible component of various types of grasslands. Some species however are under threat of extinction. This is due to their incapability of surviving in changed habitats, especially in shade of cultivated plants. Another threat is a large-scale collection of species believed to cure the HIV, or sold as a substitute of similar taxa, assumed to possess such qualities. The IUCN categories are proposed for the East African taxa of Hypoxis.

Open access

Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk and Daniela Szymańska

Abstract

This article aims to identify the scale of energy efficiency improvements in public buildings in Polish towns as representative of sustainable building. The study area is investigated from the perspective of challenges arising from the current policy in the EU. The article indicates that, given the age of public buildings in Poland, the best way to implement the concept of sustainable building is to improve their present stock. The modernisation of public buildings is discussed in terms of project location, project value, sources of funding (including EU funds), and the use of buildings undergoing modernisation. According to the research findings, the implementation of the sustainable building concept is determined by both, exogenous factors (EU directives and domestic laws, etc.) and endogenous ones (e.g. human resources and their quality)

Open access

Marcin Berger, Justyna Oleszek-Listopad, Milena Marczak and Jolanta Szymanska

Abstract

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) constitute a group of clinical problems involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. An etiological connection of TMD with psychological factors was proposed as early as the 1980’s. Indeed, the interdependence of psychological and health aspects in the patient’s treatment, place light upon the more important variables contributing to the various mental disorders that may accompany TMD. Current literature suggests a close relationship between TMD and selected psychological factors, such as personality traits, stress, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. Of note, anxiety-depressive disorders, somatisation and catastrophizing contribute to chronic TMD, mainly in the form of myofascial pain. Hence, knowledge of the influence of psychological factors affecting TMD, enables the identification of patients with an increased risk of chronic painful TMD.

Open access

Justyna Oleszek-Listopad, Katarzyna Sarna-Bos, Anna Szabelska, Elzbieta Czelej-Piszcz, Janusz Borowicz and Jolanta Szymanska

Abstract

Gold is a noble metal with very good chemical resistance. It also does not become oxidized in water or air. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and shine, and it is a heavy, but soft metal with huge plasticity and ductility. For many years, gold and its alloys have been recognized as being great prosthetic material in dental practice. In current dentistry, the progress in materials science and galvanoforming techniques have made it possible to create precise restorations utilizing this metal. This pertains both to fixed and removable dentures. Galvanized gold has a range of advantages, among these being biocompatibility, proper marginal tightness, endurance, its esthetic design and the fact that it boasts bacteriostatic features.

Open access

Katarzyna Sarna-Boś, Agata Batyra, Justyna Oleszek-Listopad, Beata Piórkowska-Skrabucha, Janusz Borowicz and Jolanta Szymańska

Abstract

Gold is a dental material with very good mechanical properties. It is also aesthetic and biocompatible with the tissues of the oral cavity even at 100% purity. Prosthetic restorations made of pure gold or its alloys can be practiced either through a normal casting, as well as through using the galvanoforming technique. The electrolytic method was first introduced into dentistry about 20 years ago and it allows for producing “pure” gold (which means 99.99% Au). The lack of additions of other metals improves the properties of dental prostheses, such as marginal tightness, esthetics, biocompatibility, and it helps in eliminating any allergic reactions. The literature review presented in this paper is a comparison of the traditional casting method with the newer galvanoforming technique.

Open access

Magdalena Szalewska, Monika Boryczka, Anna Kapica, Justyna Lemejda, Marta Łukasik, Elżbieta Pietryka-Michałowska and Jolanta Szymańska

Abstract

Introduction. Ensuring proper conditions for the development of the masticatory organ of the child can prevent or reduce the incidence of malocclusion.

Aim. The study aimed to assess the knowledge of mothers on selected elements of early orthodontic prevention.

Material and methods. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 234 pregnant women and women in childbirth from Lower Silesia, Lublin and Lubuskie voivodships. The survey included questions about demographics of mothers, such as age, place of residence, education level, and 10 questions on selected elements of early orthodontic prevention.

Results. The knowledge of mothers on the early orthodontic prevention is associated with the level of education and the place of residence - women with higher education and living in large cities have the greatest expertise in this field, although it is still inadequate in general population of women.

Open access

Magdalena Szalewska, Monika Boryczko, Anna Kapica, Justyna Lemejda, Marta Lukasik, Elzbieta Pietryka-Michalowska and Jolanta Szymanska

Abstract

Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft). The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes) - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82%) would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.

Open access

Magdalena Kluza-Wieloch, Irmina Maciejewska-Rutkowska, Wanda Wójtowicz and Justyna Wiland-Szymańska

Abstract

The aim of the study was to describe pollen morphology and its variability of four Linum species: L. perenne subsp. extraaxillare, L. hirsutum, L. flavum and L. austriacum, all derived from Poland, but occurring in few natural sites within the country. Light and scanning electron microscopy was used and statistical analyses of quantitative pollen traits were performed. All taxa shared pollen grains which were 3-zonocolpate, isopolar, radiosymmetric, spheroidal and medium to large in size. Grains were semitectate, with the sculptural elements of the exine as gemmae or clavae. Additionally, upper parts of gemmae and clavae had a microstriate pattern. Despite great similarity among the investigated Linum species in pollen morphology, distinguishing features were determined.

Open access

Jolanta Jańczyk-Węglarska, Karol Węglarski and Justyna Wiland-Szymańska

Abstract

The following paper presents the results of observations of the size and condition of cheddar pink (Dianthus gratianopolitanus Vill.) population in the “Goździk siny w Grzybnie” reserve (Wielkopolska Province), as well as active cultivation of the species in ex situ controlled conditions and its reestablishment supporting the natural, endangered population in the reserve

Open access

Małgorzata Klimko, Renata Nowińska, Paul Wilkin and Justyna Wiland-Szymańska

Abstract

Pollen grains of 15 species of the genus Sansevieria were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains were single, but dyads were also found. The basic shape of the pollen grains (with chemical treatment) was subprolate, prolate and prolate-spheroidal and the pollen grains were large (> 50 mm). The pollen grains observed in SEM were prolate-spheroidal, subprolate, prolate and perprolate. The aperture occupied nearly the entire distal hemisphere. The surface of non-apertural areas was microreticulate, psilate-perforate, fossulate and verrucate. The surface of the apertural area was psilate-perforate-verrucate, microreticulate-verrucategemmate and psilate-perforate. The tectum was homogeneous, with perforations. Our results suggest that some species cannot be separated based on pollen grain morphology, but only may be categorized into their groups. The present study investigated pollen grain morphology in eleven species for the first time in terms of pollen micromorphology and provided some important new data.