Lidia Karwacka, Aneta Kamińska, Dorota Wójcik, Anna Szabelska, Justyna Batkowska, Janusz Borowicz and Leszek Szalewski
Introduction. The fashion for a tan appeared at the beginning of the twentieth century, in the era of technological progress and urbanization with medical knowledge about heliotherapy and the promotion of the tan by fashion designer Coco Chanel being a contributing factor in it. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the UV to the first group of carcinogens but despite these warnings the increase in exposure to UV radiation has been seen in recent years. New solariums have been created around the world so that people can enjoy a tan all year round, no matter what the weather conditions are.
Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors related to UV radiation exposure among residents of Łęczna.
Material and methods. A survey conducted among 180 people inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes and behaviours associated with exposure to UV radiation while tanning.
Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained in the study showed that the socio-demographic characteristics affect the attitudes and behaviour associated with exposure to UV radiation. Suntan is believed to be significantly more fashionable among women, people with secondary education who have no permanent relationships.
Conclusion. There is a need for preventive actions and educational programs concerning the dangers of UV radiation in order to develop not only knowledge but also the correct behaviour in society.
Agnieszka Czerwińska-Osipiak, Beata Pięta, Justyna Kamińska and Halina Nowakowska
Introduction. The issue of high-risk pregnancy has been widely discussed in the recent years. As a result, many countries have introduced programs to improve perinatal care in order to meet the needs of pregnant women as well as those going into labour. Much less attention was dedicated to health and social circumstances of women in the postpartum period. The World Health Organisation developed a document (WHO Recommendations on Postnatal Care of the Mother and Newborn, 2013) in which it clearly defines recommendations formulated for the professionals who are care providers to the child and the mother after birth. The authors of the report indicate that the postnatal period is crucial for both the mothers and their children, and the lack of proper care given to them may lead to deterioration of their health and even death. According to the code of professional practice, the Polish midwife identifies and determines individuals’ requirements as well as health needs, recognizes nursing difficulties, and, effectively plans and oversees their care. The Polish guideline for the highest standard of medical care during pregnancy, the delivery, the postpartum period and the neonatal care is the Regulation of the Health Minister from 20th September 2012.
Aim. This paper collected current and adopted recommendations regarding postpartum care with an emphasis on the significant role of the midwife.
Michał Szulc, Piotr Mularczyk, Radosław Kujawski, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Ewa Kamińska, Bogna Geppert, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Kania-Dobrowolska, Marcin Ożarowski, Anna Krajewska-Patan and Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak
Introduction: In recent years, the search for potential neuroprotective properties of salidroside and its ability to influence the activity of nervous system become the subject of intense studies of many research groups. None of these studies, however, include an attempt to determine the effect of salidroside on the course of alcohol tolerance in vivo.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of salidroside to inhibit the development of alcohol tolerance in rats, determining whether the effect of its action may occur in a dose-dependent manner, reducing both metabolic and central tolerance without affecting body temperature in control rats.
Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected daily with ethanol at a dose of 3 g/kg for 9 consecutive days to produce ethanol tolerance. Salidroside in two doses (4.5 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg b.w.) or vehiculum was administered orally. On the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th day a hypothermic effect of ethanol was measured, while the loss of righting reflex procedure was performed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 7th day. On the 9th day rats were treated with salidroside, sacrificed 1 h after ethanol injections and blood was collected for blood-ethanol concentration measurement.
Results: Salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, whereas insignificant elevation of blood-ethanol concentration was observed. The dose of 4.5 mg/kg b.w. had minimal effect, only small inhibition of tolerance to hypothermic action was observed. Salidroside affected neither body mass growth nor body temperature in non-alcoholic (control) rats.
Conclusions: Results of the study indicate that salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to the hypothermic effect of ethanol. Observed inhibition of tolerance to the sedative effect of ethanol seems to be associated with salidroside influence on the central nervous system. A comprehensive explanation of the abovementioned observations requires further pharmacological and pharmacodynamic studies.