Dominik Domin, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski and Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk
Evaluating the Parsęta Basin Communes' Tourist Space Using the Selected Quantification Methods
Identifying differences in the factors determining tourism development in an area is crucial to utilising its natural, economic and socio-cultural resources that enable sustainable development of the tourist function. This article sets out to present and estimate factors underlying tourism development in the context of various quantification methods and the comparisons of their results. The phenomenon selected for the research is evaluated using tools such as a synthetic measure Gołembski (2002) (based on weights assigned to particular features) and two synthetic measures Perkal (z-scores) (1953) and Zioło (1985).
Small-scale renewable energy systems in the context of the development of distributed generation, are discussed for the case of Poland. A distributed energy system is efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly, and is one of the most recent trends in the development of the energy sector in Poland. One of the important dimensions of this process is the creation of micro- and small-power producers based on renewable, locally-available energy sources. It is clear that the development of small-scale renewable energy producers takes place in two ways. One of these is through small hydropower plants, which are the aftermath of hydropower development in areas traditionally associated with water use for energy purposes (northern and western Poland). The second is through other renewable energy sources, mainly biogas and solar energy and located primarily in southern Poland, in highly urbanized areas (e.g. Śląskie Voivodship). In conclusion, the development of small-scale renewable energy systems in Poland is regarded as a good option with respect to sustainable development.
Institutional support, reflected not only in legislative solutions, but also in external funding as a means of financial support, is of strategic importance for the success of new power investments, the guarantee of energy security of individual areas, and the socio-economic development of the region where new energy enterprises are located. The present study aims to follow the external funding of biogas investments carried out in Poland, both in the aspect of legal regulations, and the offered co-financing of biogas projects. Considering that biogas enterprises are located and operate in specific places and local systems, the present research problem is tackled from the perspective of the functioning of biogas plants in the local environment. The success of biogas projects and the entire energy transformation process depends, on the one hand, on the harmonisation of activities at the central, national level and, on the other hand, on taking into account the specific socio-economic features that characterise the location of the biogas plant. Therefore, providing comprehensive institutional support for investment for biogas enterprises requires equipping local institutions, including local authorities, with appropriate instruments to shape and monitor the agricultural biogas market at the local level.
This article aims to identify the scale of energy efficiency improvements in public buildings in Polish towns as representative of sustainable building. The study area is investigated from the perspective of challenges arising from the current policy in the EU. The article indicates that, given the age of public buildings in Poland, the best way to implement the concept of sustainable building is to improve their present stock. The modernisation of public buildings is discussed in terms of project location, project value, sources of funding (including EU funds), and the use of buildings undergoing modernisation. According to the research findings, the implementation of the sustainable building concept is determined by both, exogenous factors (EU directives and domestic laws, etc.) and endogenous ones (e.g. human resources and their quality)
Mirosław Wylon, Agnieszka Kempa, Alicja Słowy and Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk
Subject and purpose of work: Urban transport is a key element of the functioning of urban agglomerations around the world. As it is of strategic importance, the needs of its users have to be diagnosed. Due to the fact that students are the most numerous social group using public transport, particular attention should be paid to students as the real creators of the needs of urban transport. The paper aims to diagnose the challenges in urban transport shaped by the process of studentification based on the case study of Toruń.
Materials and methods: The multi-stage research approach was adopted, among others a survey among students. The choice of the research area was determined by the fact that Toruń is one of the largest academic centres in Poland.
Results: Toruń is experiencing the effects of the studentification process in different dimensions, including the spatial and transport facets.
Conclusions: The majority of students use public transport, daily or several times a week. The most preferred means of transport is the tram owing to its relative speed and punctuality.
Justyna Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Marián Kulla and Ladislav Novotný
Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.