Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ≈2% of the world’s population. HCV infection not only causes acute and chronic hepatitis, but also leads to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The molecular pathogenesis of HCV infection has been explored and many evidence indicated that autophagy is an important process for its life cycle, although autophagy was thought as a mechanism to eliminate invaded HCV from hepatocyte. Structural and non-structural proteins of HCV are important regulators of autophagy, and HCV uses autophagy as a necessary step in its replication. Down-regulation of innate immune response by HCV through unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy induction was used as a pathway to establish chronic HCV infection in the liver. Meanwhile, the infected hepatocyte is also using autophagy mechanism to eradicate HCV virus from liver. The study on relationship between HCV and autophagy will pave the new way to understand HCV life cycle and to find new strategy for prevention and treatment of liver diseases caused by HCV infection.
Differentially Expressed Proteins between Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Normal Esophageal Tissue
Proteomics was employed to identify the differentially expressed proteins between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adjacent normal esophageal tissues. ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 10 patients with ESCC and the proteins were extracted and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differentially expressed proteins were identified after image analysis, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to confirm these proteins. Immunohistochemistry was then performed to detect the expressions of HSP27 and ANX1 in ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. A total of 6 differentially expressed proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, among which SCCA1, KRT4 and ANX1 were down-regulated and TIM1, MnSOD and HSP27 up-regulated in the ESCC. Immunohistochemistry showed HSP27 was highly expressed in the ESCC which, however, had a low expression of ANX1. These findings were consistent with those in proteomics. There were differentially expressed proteins between ESCC and adjacent normal tissues. The investigation of differentially expressed proteins between ESCC and normal esophageal tissue may provide evidence for the molecular pathogenesis of ESCC.
In this paper, a new method based on phase congruency is proposed to measure pitch lengths and surface braiding angles of two-dimensional biaxial braided composite preforms. Lab space transform and BM3D (block-matching and 3D filter) are used first to preprocess the original acquired images. A corner detection algorithm based on phase congruency is then proposed to detect the corners of the preprocessed images. Pitch lengths and surface braiding angles are finally measured based on the detected corner maps. Experimental results show that our method achieves the automatic measurement of pitch lengths and the surface braiding angles of biaxial braided composite preforms with high accuracy.
Exterior and interior blood purification (EIBP) refers to the combined therapy of interior blood purification (IBP) and exterior blood purification (EBP) for severe hepatitis. For one thing, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy should be applied in IBP to reduce and prevent the generation and absorption of harmful substances in vivo. For another, EBP such as the artificial liver support system (ALSS) can extract blood from the body and various kinds of existing harmful substances in the blood can be cleared in vitro, using the treatment of plasma exchange, plasma perfusion, plasma adsorption, hemofiltration, hemodialysis. Therefore, IBP should be cooperated with EBP for the treatment of severe hepatitis, and EIBP can prevent the deterioration of this disease and lower the mortality of patients.
Ice jams in rivers often arise from the movement of frazil ice as cover-load under ice cover, a process which is conceptually similar to the movement of sediment as bed-load along a river bed. The formation and movement of an ice-accumulation wave is one facet of a larger class of cover-load movements. The movement of an ice-accumulation wave obviously plays a crucial role in the overall process of ice accumulation. In the present study, experiments under different flow and ice conditions help reveal the mechanics of formation and evolution of ice-accumulation waves. In particular, suitable criteria for formation of an ice-accumulation wave are investigated along with the resulting speed of wave propagation. The transport capacity of frazil ice under waved accumulation is modeled by comparing those of experiments collected in laboratories, and the resulting equation is shown to be in good agreement with measured experimental results.
Ice jams in northern rivers during winter period significantly change the flow conditions due to the extra boundary of the flow. Moreover, with the presence of bridge piers in the channel, the flow conditions can be further complicated. Ice cover often starts from the front of bridge piers, extending to the upstream. With the accumulation of ice cover, ice jam may happen during early spring, which results in the notorious ice jam flooding. In the present study, the concentration of flowing ice around bridge piers has been evaluated based on experiments carried out in laboratory. The critical condition for the initiation of ice cover around bridge piers has been investigated. An equation for the critical floe concentration was developed. The equation has been validated by experimental data from previous studies. The proposed model can be used for the prediction of formation of ice cover in front of a bridge pier under certain conditions.
The ice jam in a river can significantly change the flow field in winter and early spring. The presence of bridge piers further complicates the hydraulic process by interacting between the ice jam and bridge piers. Using the data collected from experiments in a laboratory flume, the evolution of an ice jam around bridge piers having three different diameters has been investigated in this study. Compared to results without-pier, it was found that the formation of an ice jam in the downstream of bridge pier is faster than that in the upstream. The thickness distribution of the ice jam shows clearly different characteristics in front and behind of bridge piers at different stages of the ice jam.
With the rapid development of shipbuilding industry exhaust world is also very harmful one kind of environmental issues, and the ship marine diesel engine exhaust gas is mainly produced, so in recent years it has developed a diesel engine SCR system. SCR system can control emissions of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of vessel, furthermore air pollution can be reduced. The main goal of article was using fluent software to correct SCR system selection and flue gas flow under different size best deflector arrangement is simulated. Next goal is further optimize the structure of the SCR system.
Background Military recruits are at a higher risk of acute respiratory disease (ARD) and the causative agents might change over time, which needs to be investigated.
Methods The nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were consecutively collected from conscripts for three years in a military training center. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assays were conducted for 15 species of common respiratory pathogens; the serum anti-Legionella pneumophila antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay, and serum anti-Microplasma pneumoniae antibodies, serum anti-influenza B virus and anti-influenza A virus-IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA.
Results The prevalences of ARD were 59.3% (108/182) in 2008, 23.3% (50/215) in 2009, and 19.6% (40/204) in 2010. Among the patients with ARD from 2008 to 2010, the influenza B virus infection accounted for 45.4%, 30.0% and 55.0%, and seasonal influenza A virus infection for 8.3%, 8.0% and 5.0%, respectively; the positive rates of serum anti-Legionella pneumophila and anti-Microplasma pneumoniae antibodies in recruits was lower than 10% each year respectively in the three years without diagnostic significance.
Conclusion The early appropriate diagnosis and treatment of ARD in military personnel will ensure the power strength of armed forces.
The width of cut tobacco strands is an important indicator for physical parameters as well as for the smoking quality. In some countries, cut width helps to distinguish fine-cut tobacco and pipe tobacco and thus differentiates taxation rate. A new method for rapid measurement of the width of cut tobacco strands was developed based on digital image processing, because the method described in ISO 20193, though easy to implement in factories, proved time consuming and generated high testing costs. The essence of this method is to determine the statistic width of incisions. The straight-line segments represent the width of strands of cut tobacco, from which the determination of the width for randomly placed tobacco strands could be achieved. Five kinds of samples (‘ISO collaborative study samples 0.4 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.6 mm and 3.0 mm’ and ‘Guangdong baked 0.9 mm’) were used to study the comparability of the measurement results between the method presented in this work and the current ISO method. Results show that accuracy and repeatability are comparable. In addition, the testing efficiency of the method presented in this work appears to be higher than the current ISO method, and it is thus a promising alternative method for measuring the width of strands of cut tobacco.