The task of producing a generic model of the modal choice decision making process is a challenging one. Modal choice is strongly influenced by the infrastructure limitations and geographical constraints of the area in which the decision is being made. With this in mind, addressing modal choice on an individual basis for each region may be the optimal solution. This is the approach adopted in this paper. The creation of a modal choice model is a multistage process of which this paper addresses the first stage, the production a framework of the decision making process. Firstly, a number of criteria that are commonly used in modal choice models are identified. Then a number of gaps in the criteria utilized in previous papers are established. Subsequently, the method used to produce a framework of the decision making process within North West England’s Atlantic Gateway is outlined. Through consultation with transport industry experts in North West England, an initial list of sixty eight papers was reduced to thirty six that were considered to be of specific relevance to modern day freight transportation within their region. The criteria used in each of these papers were then, along with further industry input, used to create the foundation on which a modal choice framework specific to the Atlantic Gateway could be built. A greater understanding of what influences modal choice within this region will allow informed decisions to be made by policy makers on how to more efficiently utilize the available modes of freight transport. Having established this, future work can then go on to build upon these findings. This paper recommends that future work is performed to establish the weights of each criteria and sub-criteria within the framework. This should then be followed by establishing industry’s perceptions of the best and worst alternatives for moving freight within the Atlantic Gateway.
Alnus Mill. (alder) is an ecologically valuable tree genus. It is essential to study its genetic makeup in order to use alder trees to their full potential. Five specimens from four Alnus species (A. mandshurica, A. pendula, A. sibirica, and A. sieboldiana), found in northeastern Asia, were subjected to karyotype analysis. The analysis showed that these tree samples could be divided into three categories based on chromosome numbers or ploidy levels: viz., 2n = (4x) = 28, 2n = (8x) = 56 and 2n = (16x) = 112. The differences in chromosome number and karyotype parameters among Alnus species and even within the same species possibly resulted from natural polyploidization. Comparing the chromosome numbers of Alnus species in China with those in Japan showed that there appear to be only two categories in China, whereas there are up to five categories in Japan. The earliest fossil records of Alnus pollen were also discovered in Japan. We conclude that the center origin of Alnus spp. is Japan rather than China.
It is important to improve the natural frequency of test device to improve measurement accuracy. First-order frequency is basic frequency of dynamic model, which generally is the highest vibration energy of natural frequency. Taking vector force test device (VFTD) as example, a novel dynamic design method for improving first-order natural frequency by increasing structure stiffness is proposed. In terms of six degree-of-freedom (DOF) of VFTD, dynamic model of VFTD is built through the Lagrange dynamic equation to obtain theoretical natural frequency and mode shapes. Experimental natural frequency obtained by the hammering method is compared with theoretical results to prove rationality of the Lagrange method. In order to improve the stiffness of VFTD, increase natural frequency and meet the requirement of high frequency test, by using the trial and error method combined with curve fitting (TECF), stiffness interval of meeting natural frequency requirement is obtained. Stiffness of VFTD is improved by adopting multiple supports based on the stiffness interval. Improved experimental natural frequency is obtained with the hammering method to show rationality of the dynamic design method. This method can be used in improvement of first-order natural frequency in test structure.
This research aims to investigate the best “Te Ding Dian Ci Bo Pu Zhi Liao Qi” (TDP) irradiation duration to enhance the efficacy of nursing and patient satisfaction.
A total of 34 eligible patients were randomly divided into the treatment group (n=18) and the control group (n=16) between December 2015 and December 2016. Qualitative and quantitative studies were combined to create an impersonal evaluation of incision pain score, time of stitches removal, duration of hospital stays, patient satisfaction, and subjective experience due to different TDP irradiation durations.
The incision pain scores of the treatment group were 3.06±0.899 and 1.35±0.493 before and after treatment, respectively (P< 0.05), whereas those of the control group were 2.46±1.127 and 1.0±0.707 before and after treatment, respectively (P<0.05). No significant difference was found between the treatment group and the control group (P>0.05). The time of stitches removal and the duration of hospital stays of the treatment group were 14.85±4.070 and 19.08±6.652, respectively, whereas those of the control group were 14.08±0.641 and 23.15±10.72 (P>0.05), respectively. The patient satisfaction degree score of the treatment group was 2.77±0.439, whereas that of the control group was 2.08±0.954 (P< 0.05).
TDP irradiation can effectively relieve the incision pain of patients after lumbar spinal surgery. The treatment group is superior to the control group in patient satisfaction.
Palygorskite was applied in complexation-ultrafiltration treatment of heavy metals in wastewater under different pH and ionic strength. The results indicated that the rejection of heavy metals increased significantly with pH value, and decreased slightly with an increase of ionic strength of Na+ and Cl–. A certain concentration of NaCl significantly reduced the rejection rate of Cu2+. The rejection of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ could reach over 86.8%, 93.6% and 93.7% at pH of 7 and 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The rejection of heavy metals was severely affected by low molecular weight competing complexing agents and the effect of sodium tartrate was greater than triethanolamine. In the presence of sodium tartrate, the rejection of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ could arrive over 81.4%, 57.6% and 60.5% at pH of 7 in 20 min. Palygorskite was offered a potential complexing agent for the removal of heavy metals in wastewater at the complexation-ultrafiltration process.
To date, there have been no panoramic studies of the serum metabolome in feline mammary carcinoma. As the first such study, metabolomics techniques were used to analyse the serum of cats with these tumours. Three important metabolic pathways of screened differential metabolites closely related to feline mammary carcinomas were analysed to lay a theoretical basis for further study of the pathogenesis of these carcinomas.
Material and Methods
Blood in a 5–8 mL volume was sampled from twelve cats of the same breed and similar age (close to nine years on average). Six were feline mammary carcinoma patients and six were healthy. L glutamate, L alanine, succinate, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine were screened as were alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, the tricarboxylid acid (TCA) cycle, and purine metabolism. Data were acquired with LC-MS non-target metabolomics, multiple reaction monitoring target metabolomics, and multivariate statistical and bioinformatic analysis.
Expression of five of the metabolites was upregulated and only inosine expression was downregulated. Up- and downregulation of metabolites related to glycometabolism, potentiation of the TCA cycle, greater content of lipid mobilisation metabolites, and abnormality of amino acid metabolism were closely related to the occurrence of the carcinomas.
These findings provide a new direction for further study of the mechanisms associated with cat mammary neoplasms.
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland is extremely rare. Therefore, no case to our knowledge has been reported to date.
Objective: We described our findings in a 48-year-old immunocompetent man, who presented with four months progressive diabetes insipidus (DI) and two months subsequent headache.
Methods and Results: A radiological study and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhancing dumbbell-shaped lesion, 2.4⃞1.2 cm in size, involving both the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. A brain biopsy was conducted through a transnasal transsphenoidal approach, and a final histopathological diagnosis of the tumor was confirmed as diffuse large B-cell malignant lymphoma. After extensive tumor surveys, including computed tomography, MRI, ultrasound, bone marrow biopsy, lumbar puncture, and positron emission tomography (PET), no evidence of other lesions found. Subsequently, he received six cycles of intravenous highdose methotrexate-based chemotherapy followed by one cycle of whole-brain radiotherapy. The progressive DI and headache completely resolved and he was in good health 11 months later.
Conclusion: Clinicians should consider the possibility of PCNSL in non specific clinical presentations.
Quasi-static uniaxial compressive tests of open-cell copper (Cu) foams (OCCF) were carried out on an in-situ bi-direction tension/compress testing machine (IBTC 2000). The effects of strain rate, porosity and pore size on the energy absorption of open-cell copper foams were investigated to reveal the energy absorption mechanism. The results show that three performance parameters of open-cell copper foams (OCCF), involving compressive strength, Young modulus and yield stress, increase simultaneously with an increase of strain rate and reduce with increasing porosity and pore size. Furthermore, the energy absorption capacity of OCCF increases with an increase of porosity and pore size. However, energy absorption efficiency increases with increasing porosity and decreasing pore size. The finite element simulation results show that the two-dimensional stochastic model can predict the energy absorption performance of the foam during the compressive process. The large permanent plastic deformation at the weak edge hole is the main factor that affects the energy absorption.
Background: Decompressing craniectomy (DC) is an important method for the management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Objective: To analyze the effect of prophylactic DC within 24 hours after head trauma TBI.
Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing prophylactic DC for severe TBI were included in this retrospective study. Both of the early and late outcomes were studied and the prognostic factors were analyzed.
Results: In this series, cumulative death in the first 30 days after DC was 26%, and 28 (53%) of 53 survivors in the first month had a good outcomes. The factors including Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) score at admission, whether the patient had an abnormal pupil response and whether the midline shift was greater than 5 mm were most important prognostic factors for the prediction of death in the first 30 days and the final outcome at 6 months after DC.
Conclusion: Prophylactic DC plays an important role in the management of highly elevated ICP, especially when other methods of reduction of ICP are unavailable.
Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein with glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between the intracellular survival ability of Brucella and Prdx6. Here, the Prdx6 enzyme with a single activity was constructed to facilitate study of the relationship between the single function of Prdx6 and Brucella infection.
Material and Methods: The target open reading frame (ORF) DNAs of Prdx6 with a single active centre were prepared using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), and the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids inserted by Prdx6 with the single activity centre were constructed and transfected into murine Raw264.7 macrophages. The glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity of the constructed Prdx6 were examined.
Results: The core centres (Ser32 and Cys47) of Prdx6 were successfully mutated by changing the 94th nucleotide from T to G and the 140th nucleotide from G to C in the two enzyme activity cores, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids of Prdx6 with the single active centre were transfected into murine macrophages showing the expected single functional enzyme activity, which MJ33 or mercaptosuccinate inhibitors were able to inhibit.
Conclusion: The constructed mutants of Prdx6 with the single activity cores will be a benefit to further study of the biological function of Prdx6 with different enzyme activity.