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Juma Haydary

Abstract

In this work, the gasification of a fraction of municipal solid waste, MSW, generally separated from inorganic materials and biodegradable components, the so-called refuse-derived fuel (RDF), was studied using material characterisation methods, and the modelling of an industrial scale process was presented. The composition of RDF was determined by the separation of a representative sample into its basic components (paper, foils, hard plastics, textiles). All RDF components as well as a representative mixed sample of the RDF were studied using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and bomb calorimetry to determine their proximate and elemental compositions, and a higher heating value. An industrial scale gasification process was studied by mathematical modelling and computer simulations. All techniques, gasification with air, gasification with oxygen, and gasification with both oxygen and steam were investigated under different conditions. The RDF conversion of 100 % was achieved by the gasification with air at the air to RDF mass ratio of 3.2. The gas heating value was 4.4 MJ/Nm3. The gasification of RDF using oxygen enables the production of gas with the heating value of around 10 MJ/Nm3 at the oxygen to RDF mass ratio of 0.65. By increasing the steam to the RDF mass ratio, the contents of H2 and CO2 increased, while the content of CO, reactor temperature and the gas heating value decreased.

Open access

Patrik Šuhaj, Jakub Husár and Juma Haydary

Abstract

Approximately 1 300 Gt of municipal solid waste (MSW) are produced worldwide every year. Most of it is disposed of in landfills, which is very hazardous for the environment. Up to 10 % of produced MSW are incinerated. However, incineration is not very effective and requires specific conditions for preventing emissions. Gasification and pyrolysis are more effective processes which can be used not only for heat and electricity generation but also for fuel and valuable chemicals production. MSW can be transformed into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) which has higher heat of combustion. Synthesis gas produced by RDF gasification can be utilised in methanol production. Methanol is a very lucrative chemical which can be used as renewable liquid fuel or as a reagent in organic syntheses. Gasifier design and process optimisation can be done using a reliable mathematical model. A good model can significantly decrease the number of experiments necessary for the gasification process design. In this work, equilibrium model for RDF gasification was designed in Aspen Plus environment and the flow of oxygen and steam as gasification agents were optimised to achieve the highest theoretical methanol yield. Impact of the recycle of unreacted steam and produced tar on the methanol yield was evaluated. The highest theoretical methanol yield (0.629 kgMEOH/kgRDF) was achieved when the steam and tar recycle were switched on, the ratio between oxygen and RDF feed was 0.423 kg/kg and that between the steam and RDF feed was 0.606 kg/kg. In this case, fresh steam represented only 12 % of the total steam fed to the reactor, the rest consisted of recycled steam. Optimal gasifier temperature was 900 °C.

Open access

Mohammad Jafar Royen, Abdul Wasim Noori and Juma Haydary

Abstract

In this work, drying of tomato slices was studied in a laboratory scale batch dryer working at conditions specific for geographical locations with low ambient pressure and low relative humidity of air. Tomato is a perishable farm product with high moisture content. Despite their high value, tomatoes are subjected to wastage and spoilage during their seasonal period; to last longer after harvested, they need to be treated by drying. Drying is one of the most widely used methods of tomato preserving for a longer period of time. This study involves experimental work on tomatoes drying in a tray laboratory batch dryer with the dimensions of (490 × 330 × 310) mm, a load cell-force sensor (range: 0–5 kg), fan (speed: 0–2500 rpm), air flow sensor (0–150 l/min) and a temperature and humidity monitoring system. This study was aimed at the development of a suitable drying method for the production of dehydrated agricultural products under specific air properties and climate conditions such as low ambient pressure and low relative humidity. During the experiment, the average ambient pressure was 82 kPa, and the average relative humidity of air was 20 %. Drying characteristics of tomato slices were determined at three temperature levels, namely: 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C,and three air flow rates: 30 l/s, 40 l/s and 50 l/s, for each temperature level. In this study, the effect of temperature, air flow rate, and ambient conditions on the drying rate of tomato slices were studied. The results indicate that during the experiments, tomatoes were dried to the final moisture content of 32.2 % from 92 %. Drying time at 50 °C, 60 °C and 70°C, and air flow of 30 l/s was 17.80 h, 15.80 h, and 14.08 h, respectively. For the air flow rate of 40 l/s, the drying time was 15.0 h, 12.9 h and 11.7 h and for the air flow rate of 50 l/s, the drying time of tomato slices was 14.0 h, 11.6 h and 10.2 h, respectively.