In the most service life models of reinforced concrete structures the initiation phase is the most crucial, because according to models, service life of the structure will end underestimation on conservative side when carbonation achieves the reinforcement for the first time. The square root model is widely used in predicting carbonation depth of reinforced concrete. The model is based on diffusion laws and thereby arguable for inhomogeneous concrete. The model was evaluated by field measurements from one existing concrete building by conducting condition investigation twice at a time interval of 20 years. Samples were taken from exposed aggregate concrete sandwich panels and balcony side panels. Compared to the data collected from large number of buildings, the measured carbonation rates were very common for Finnish concrete buildings made during the 1960s and 1970s. According to this study, in solid concrete the progress of carbonation of concrete can be predicted reliably with Fick’s second law. This model, however, gives too pessimistic predictions for concrete suffering from freeze-thaw damage. Therefore, a new model has been presented for damaged concrete.
Even though natural phenomena do not abide to borders, Finland has traditionally been considered an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) free country. This is due to exceptional quality of the mostly course crystalline igneous rocks. However, during the last few years dozens of cases of ASR have been reported. The scope of this study was to study the occurrence of ASR, and to find out the initiation time of the reaction in resent investigations of Finnish concrete structures. ASR is found occurring all over Finland. The reacting aggregates consist of rock types, which are considered relatively stable or low reacting in literature.
It has been shown in previous studies that the existing precast concrete element building stock in Finland has quality issues, especially with freeze-thaw durability and reinforcement corrosion. In addition, it has been presented that deterioration rate is the fastest in coastal area and decreases towards north which has been supposed to be a reason of lower amount of wind-driven rain (WDR). The aim of this study was to examine the connection between the amount of WDR on structures and the freeze-thaw damage more comprehensively. Condition investigation reports of 472 precast concrete element buildings were reanalysed to study the relation and the results were compared to climate data of the same time period to study the correlation between condition investigation observations and the amount of WDR. In addition, the observations made in a condition investigations and their relation to climate load at the same building were studied as a case study. The results show that there is a significant connection between the WDR related climate load and the freeze-thaw damage occurrence. The results can be used to plan protective methods and be a base for service life estimations.