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  • Author: Judit Kovacs x
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Importance of Animation Actions in the Operation of Hungarian Local Action Groups

The EU LEADER initiative has been running for 20 years and plays an important role in the development of European rural areas, however, in countries joining to the EU after 2004 it is still a relatively new phenomenon. In Hungary, for example, the LEADER+ programme was launched in 2005 with an experimental phase (called a "LEADER type initiative") and has developed to be a fully applied EU programme only in the current programming period. This paper explores the implementation of the LEADER programme in eastern Hungary. The examined Local Action Groups face diverse challenges concerning human, social, physical and financial capital, networks and social learning. The study investigates the opportunities and threats faced by the LAGs, with special regard to institutions, governance and applied initiatives. The roles of the LAGs within the social, economic and cultural context of given areas are examined through Lukesch's (2007) model FOG - forms of governance. The model is a tool to explore the interrelationships local partnership, local needs and local socio-cultural environment. The results of the FOG test show that the prevailing mode of governance in the examined LAGs emphasises animation actions as important elements of operation. Although the importance of animation actions is underlined by the result of the test, their presence between the initiatives is less than it should be. Good examples of animation actions are given: participatory video and a case study of its Hungarian application are introduced. Finally the role of Universities in animation actions is emphasised and closer relation of them with RD networks is called for.


Introduction:This paper presents the results of a survey on excellent teachers conducted in Hungary in 2018. The main question of the study was how pedagogical talents can be characterised by competences and personality traits according to effective teachers and their colleagues. Furthermore, what effective teachers think about their own competences and characteristics, as well as how that is related to their beliefs of pedagogical talents was tested.

Methods:The online questionnaire method was applied in the research. The sample involved effective teachers (N=92) of high-risk students (N=25) and of gifted students (N=43), as well as supervisor teachers (N=24) who were selected by judgment sampling. The control group of teachers (N=76) had similar characteristics to the sample as they were matched by the type of institution and geographical location. The data was processed using SPSS software.

Results:The excellent teachers’ beliefs about pedagogical talents showed differences in many ways. Excellent teachers of high-risk students had the most child-centred view. Not only did they pay attention to students’ needs while planning and organizing lessons, but they also found the students’ feedback important, much more than other subsamples. They also said in high proportion they can handle the challenges related to the societal level of their work. Among all the sub-samples, they indicated most frequently that excellent teachers should be happy, initiative and practical. Supervisor teachers unanimously indicated that good teachers should be highly cooperative and also that excellent teachers should be friendly and flexible. It turned out from the research that excellent teachers of gifted children used significantly fewer teaching methods than the other group. Among all sub-samples, they were the ones who found the competences of “developing student groups and communities” the least important. The data showed that the teachers in this sub-group felt less able to adapt to the changes related to the societal level of their work. The words “theoretical”, “isolated”, “serious”, „distant” appeared in a significantly higher proportion among these teachers when speaking about pedagogic talents in general. These words were frequently used when spoking about their own characteristics.

Discussion:The results of the excellent teachers of high-risk students and supervisor teachers showed similarity in many regards. Both groups seemed to be methodologically well-prepared, and able to give varied enjoyable lessons, as well as to develop student communities; and to carry out continuous reflective practice. Excellent teachers of gifted students focused on academic knowledge much more than other sub-groups. They also planned and managed their lessons differently. The background of this phenomena could be that their students’ knowledge and motivation is more homogenous.

Limitations:Although the size of the sample was not representative, the study confirmed and complemented former relevant research.

Conclusion:The results showed that pedagogical talents can have multiple manifestations., which can be caused by the wide range of pedagogical work and the related roles. On the other hand, there are different teachers’ characteristics and competences. The study also showed that teachers’ views about excellent teachers are closely connected to the particularities of the taught student group. The researchers hope that these results can be an inspiration for further studies in this field.


Early recognition and intervention in sudden cardiac arrest is crucial for survival. The majority of these cases happen at the victims’ home or in public places, and the first person to act is usually a bystander. The purpose of this study was to assess and to compare bystander’s and third-year medical students’ (who attended first aid courses and training as first year students) knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Tîrgu Mureş. Material and methods: We used a questionnaire, which included 28 questions and was filled in voluntarily by 335 people. We investigated previous cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) experience, willingness to help in an emergency situation and basic knowledge about CPR techniques. Results: Only 15% of bystanders were trained in CPR. The majority (94%) of them knew when they have to resuscitate a person and the correct position the person be in. The location of chest compressions was known by 39% of bystanders and by 78% of third-year medical students, the exact rate of chest compressions by 14% of bystanders and by 66% of medical students. 49% of bystanders had driving license, and even though first aid training was required at driving school, their knowledge was barely better than those who did not have one. Conclusions: Bystander’s knowledge on cardiopulmonary resuscitation is generally poor. To improve it, CPR training courses are needed in the community.


Burnout syndrome has an increasing incidence among intensive therapists because of high expectations and stress which leads to physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. Our aim was to examine the causes and severity of burnout in intensive care units.

Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires were distributed among intensive care workers of an university and a town hospital. Socio-demographic data were also collected.

The questionnaires were completed by 67 professionals, 28 doctors, 39 nurses. 43.4% suffered serious burnout, 23.52% high level of depersonalization, only 19.11% were satisfied with their accomplishments. Females showed higher incidence of burnout, especially those with chronic diseases (OR=3.33). According to our data, burnout was not related to family status and working hours, however there was significant correlation between satisfaction and weekly relaxation time (p = 0.0115).

Burnout syndrome is spreading among intensive care employees, therefore its prevention should be a priority.


Although the tendency that the population migrate from rural to urban areas is typical world wide, the globalised economy creates new circumstances and opportunities for rural areas as well. The ‘new rural economy’ therefore needs new infrastructure to support it. The authors of the paper have a common interest in how enterprise hubs could help the development of entrepreneurship in the 21st century from two different directions, from physical and from social aspects. Building on the experience gained along enterprise hubs in cities, the hypothesis behind the study is, that creating enterprise hubs from existing buildings in rural settlements could help the development of rural entrepreneurship. To examine the hypothesis two case studies following a period of two years (enterprise hub development in Debrecen and Noszvaj) were carried out. In line with other studies in this field, result shows that even well-designed physical spaces are not enough for change, and initiators, hosts or facilitators are needed, as they play an important role in focusing on the real interaction network and enabling more synergies to happen.


Introduction. Perioperative myocardial injuries are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery, the most common etiology being the poor myocardial protection during aortic crossclamp. During aortic crossclamp progressive accumulation of lactate and intracellular acidosis are well-known phenomena, and are associated with alteration of myocardial contractile function. Our objective was to study the coronary sinus lactate levels as a predictor of postoperative hemodynamic outcome in open-heart surgical patients.

Material and methods. We performed a prospective clinical trial, including 142 adult patients with elective cardiac surgery. Anterograde cardioplegia was administered in 82 patients, retrograde cardioplegia in 60 (in 30 patients it was administrated intermittently and in 30 continuously). Blood was collected simultaneously from the aortic cardioplegic line (inflow) and from coronary sinus or the aortic root (outflow) before aortic crossclamp, after crossclamp at every 10 minutes and after crossclamp removal at 0 and 10 minutes. All patients were operated on cardiopulmonary bypass with cardiac arrest, using warm-blood cardioplegia for cardioprotection.

Results. Lactate levels showed increasing values during aortic crossclamp, and a rapid decline after crossclamp removal. The incidence of low cardiac output was significantly higher in patients with lactate levels that exceeded 4 mmol/L. In patients who died in the postoperative period, lactate level was even higher (5 mmol/L), with only a modest recovery after crossclamp removal.

Conclusion. Monitoring lactate level in coronary sinus blood is a reliable method and has a good prognostic value regarding postoperative morbidity and mortality in open heart surgery


This article examines workfare schemes in rural Hungary and their contribution to relieving rural poverty. It does so on the basis of an analysis of European Union statistics and a series of semi-structured interviews which were conducted in 2013-2015 as part of a larger project investigating the contemporary state of rural Hungary. The paper comprises four sections: following a short description of the methodology, regional disparities and deprivation in rural areas are introduced with the help of a typology on deprivation and Eurostat data, thus providing evidence for European comparison. Following this, the main findings of our extensive qualitative research into workfare policies in rural Hungary are introduced and discussed on the basis of related legislation. The article finds that workfare schemes in the rural sector are unique to Central and Eastern Europe, and are especially favoured in Hungary; it also discovers that economists are correct in assessing that said workfare schemes create few new jobs. Nevertheless, they are ‘better than nothing’, and have become embedded in rural society, where they are appreciated by beneficiaries and local officials alike. They necessarily make a paternalistic distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor, and the more commercially-oriented schemes raise issues of market distortion.


Introduction: The increased incidence of nosocomial infections in intensive care units, with frequent occurrence of multiresistant pathogens increase mortality and often raises therapeutic problems.

Objectives: to assess the incidence of nosocomial infections, and risk factors.

Methods: The study includes 125 patients hospitalized in the Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intesive Care in the Emergency County Hospital and Cardiovascular Surgery Targu Mures. The patients were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 99), patients who did not develop infections during hospitalization in the ICU and the group with infection (n = 26).

Results: The incidence of nosocomial infections in our intensive care unit was 19.1%, the most common pathogen being Acinetobacter baumanii. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic data, the most important risk factor was chronic alcohol consumption. SAPS II. and SOFA scores showed higher values in the group with infection on the day of admission. This group showed lower levels of arterial blood oxygen (Horowitz index), lower sodium level, and higher number of platelets compared to the control group. The mortality in the group with infection was 47.65% compared to the control.

Conclusions: Nosocomial infections in critically ill patients are associated with hypoxemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia and a bad outcome.