Previous research with extrinsic (“materialistic”) and intrinsic (“non-materialistic”) life goals suggest that intrinsic aspirations (e.g. relationships, community service, personal development) are associated with a better functioning, mentally and physically more healthy personality. In this survey 198 undergraduate students of BBS were examined by the Aspiration Index questionnaire in order to determine the pattern of extrinsic and intrinsic life goals in their personality, to find relationship between personal background-factors and these aspirations, and to compare the attitudes of the young population to a less homogenous reference group. Compared with the reference group, young women of BBS find all goals more important, except for social commitment and general intrinsic aspiration. Both BBS female and male students were found more materialistic. The materialistic attitudes are significantly stronger among the students of business programs, but not among the students of humanities (andragogy). In conclusion, the students of BBS tend to accept more extrinsic life goals than members of the external reference group. These attitudes are influenced by the generational properties of this young population and by the educational program they attend (business or humanities). The extrinsic attitudes do not serve the individuals’ personal development or happiness; neither do they serve the interests of society. The new paradigms of the future business world are not yet interiorized.
Since the political and economic changes that occurred in 1989-1990, Hungary has been in a state of transition from a socialist regime to a democratic culture. In an effort to comply with the rules of democracy, equal opportunities for people with disabilities are demanded on various platforms. However, inclusion in sports is still uncommon, and physical education (P.E.) teachers, trainers, sports scientists, etc. are not provided with in-depth education on adapted sports. The present study examines the involvement of Hungarian adults with VI (visual impairments) in leisure sports and investigates facilitators and barriers which members of the target group face. First, the educational opportunities (segregation or inclusion) provided for Hungarian children with VI are introduced. The historical and legislative backgrounds are presented in order to give a clear review of the social context. Findings of a survey on the activity levels of Hungarian adults with vision loss are introduced, which reflect the target group’s willingness to get involved in leisure activities and also pinpoint factors which hinder their participation (e.g., professionals’ unfamiliarity with the special needs of those with VI and adapted sports opportunities).