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Zhang Zhuowen, Sui Juanjuan, Mei Li and Shu Changqing


Pollen dispersal and its spatial distribution in a seed orchard of Larix kaempferi in Changlinggang, Jianshi, Hubei Province has been studied for 3 years. The results show that pollen dispersal is directly affected by weather conditions, with wind speed being the main factor controlling pollen dispersal. Pollen dispersal follows a date rhythm of low-high-low during the whole pollen dispersal season with a peak date for 3-5 days, and a time rhythm of low-high-low with the peak time at 10:00-16:00 during the day. For pollen density in the air there are significant differences among dates, and among different day times during dispersing. There are no significant differences between pollen densities in space with regard to horizontal directions, 8 orientations, and different positions in the tree crown in this seed orchard, in all of these cases pollens are evenly distributed. There are significant differences for pollen densities among different vertical heights, showing a cluster distribution type. The pollination level in this seed orchard is very low and needs a supplement mass pollination (SMP).

Open access

Xiaoli Yao, Wen Wei, Juanjuan Li, Lijun Wang, ZhiLiang Xu, Yingwen Wan, Kaiyang Li and Shengrong Sun


Background: Many breast-imaging techniques have been developed as primary clinical methods for identifying early-stage breast cancers and differentiating them from benign breast tumors. For the large population of China, any screening method that is rapid, economical, and accurate is worthy of evaluation.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of mammography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and far-infrared thermography in the screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer.

Methods: Data from 2036 women with breast disease between January 2007 and May 2011 were included in this study. All patients underwent mammography, ultrasonography, and far-infrared thermography imaging. The diagnostic accuracy of the three methods was determined using postoperative pathological results as the diagnostic criterion standard.

Results: There were 480 patients found to have breast malignancies on pathological examination. The lesion diameter was <2 cm in 853 cases. Among them, breast cancer was found in 73 patients and carcinoma in situ in 22 patients. There was no difference in the accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography (96.1% versus 95.8%). However, there were significant differences between the accuracy of far-infrared thermography (97.1%) and ultrasonography and mammography. The sensitivity and specificity of far-infrared thermography was superior to that of mammography and ultrasonography in lesions <2 cm in diameter.

Conclusion: Far-infrared thermography is more accurate for breast cancer screening than ultrasonography and mammography for lesions <2 cm. It has comparable diagnostic accuracy to ultrasound and better diagnostic accuracy than mammography for lesions >2 cm in diameter.