Oľga Šestinová, Lenka Findoráková and Jozef Hančuľák
This study presents the results of the testing toxicity of the contaminated sediments from the water reservoir of Ružín No.I deposit (Slovak Republic) by using Phytotoxkit tests (MicroBioTests Inc., Belgium). The Phytotoxkit system is a screening tool used for a variety of toxicity testing applications. The advantages of this toxicity bioassay are its speed, relative simplicity and low cost compared to chemical analysis and many other biotests. Evaluation of sediments phytotoxicity was based on the testing of seed germination and the assesment of the root growth decrease of the plant Sinapis alba which allows to complete the assays after only 3 days of incubacion. Chemical analysis of the sediment samples involved determination of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Sb and Hg) concentration. No potential phytotoxic effect of heavy metals in contaminated sediments was observed in the majority of tested seeds of Sinapis alba.
Oľga Šestinová, Jozef Hančuľák and Tomislav Špaldon
This study was conducted to investigate heavy metals bioaccumulation in industrialized soils in surrounding of Košice city (Slovakia), using earthworms. In the present research, we used ecotoxicity tests with Dendrobaena veneta (7 and 28-day bioassays) to infer about potential toxic risks to the agricultural (A) and permanent grass vegetation (PGV) of soils around the plant U. S. Steel Košice. The total Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and As contents and eco-toxicological tests of industrialized soils from the Košice area were performed for 12 sampling sites in years 2016 – 2017. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the largest steel producer plant on the total concentrations of heavy metals was determined for Fe, Cd, Cr and As. It was found that earthworms (Dendrobaena veneta) in some cases caused a decrease of metals concentration in contaminated soils, the largest metal concentration differences were recorded in the samples PGV (4) U. S. Steel-plant-main gate. The results of the bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals in D. veneta (BAFs/7-28 d) are < 1 for the studied metals order in the sequence: Cr < Fe < Pb < Cu < As and > 1 for Zn > Cd.
Oľga Šestinová, Lenka Findoráková, Silvia Dolinská, Jozef Hančuľák, Tomislav Špaldon and Erika Fedorová
This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208), Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis alba and chronic tests of Earthworm (Eisenia veneta), modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes on polluted sediments. Earthworms can accelerate the removal of contaminants from soil. The study materials are river sediments, which were obtained from a monitoring station - the Water reservoir the Ružín No.1 particularly, the river Hornád, Hnilec and sample from sludge bed Rudňany. The samples of sediment were used to assess of the potential phytotoxic effect of heavy metals on higher plants. Total mortality was established in earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 and 28 exposure days. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated sediments from the sludge bed Rudňany on S. alba seeds was observed. The largest concentration differences were recorded in the sample R7 after 7 days earthworms exposure. The earthworms mortality was not influenced by sediment neither after 7 nor 28 exposure days The spectra of samples H, HO and R showed broad peak at 1 419 - 1 512 cm−1 characteristic for carbonate radical. In the spectra of the samples (R and R7) the vibration of C-H groups at 2 926 and 2 921 cm−1, respectively were also observed, demonstrating the presence of organic matter. Our research will continue with determination of metals concentration in earthworms.
Oľga Šestinová, Lenka Findoráková, Jozef Hančuľák and Tomislav Špaldon
The purpose of the present study was to develop a useful screening method to assess genotoxic effect of polluted bottom sediments from the water reservoir Ružin No.I. The Hornád and Hnilec Rivers drained a former mining area, have been polluted in the long-term by heavy metals (Cu, As, Sb, Hg), which significantly contributed to environmental degradation. Genotoxicity of bottom sediment was evaluated by test SOS-ChromoPadTM 3.0 for solid samples without extraction. The mentioned test represents simple, quick and direct sediment phase toxicity testing procedure. In this test bacterial strain Escherichia coli K12 PQ37 was used. The results of SOS-ChromoPadTM 3.0 showed that sample Hornád has low potential genotoxic effect on the environment. It was determined on the basis of slight blue colouration of chromogenic paper at the point of sediment application. The sample Hnilec was negative. This test allows significantly reduce the time for obtaining information about sediments genotoxicity and accept necessary security proceeding in time.