For decades, the concept of sustainability has been recognized as the basis for survival and further development of humanity. As the result of joint efforts, The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted in 2015 by United Nations member states, as a plan and direction for future prosperity. It identified 17 goals, with one of them highlighting the sustainable economic growth, productive employment and decent work. Providing quality jobs and safe working environment, while decreasing in-work poverty, are important preconditions for sustainable economic development. The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of productive employment from the aspect of sustainable development on the example of Serbia, comparing indicators with surrounding countries and leading EU members. Particular emphasis will be placed on the main difficulties young people in Serbia deal with at the labor market, on certain inequalities and necessary strategies to alleviate the current problems. The issue of youth not in employment, education or training will be analyzed as well, along with unemployment and decent work opportunities in terms of gender and age structure. Furthermore, it aims to address the main causes of these disparities in order to indicate the changes that need to be made and suggest strategies for their implementation.
Elevated free radical production and/or insufficient antioxidative defense results in cellular oxidant stress responses. Sustained and/or intense oxidative insults can overcome cell defenses resulting in accumulated damage to macromolecules, leading to loss of cell function, membrane damage, and ultimately to cell death. Oxidative stress (OS) can result from conditions including excessive physical stress, exposure to environmental pollution and xenobiotics, and smoking. Oxidative stress, as a pathophysiological mechanism, has been linked to numerous pathologies, poisonings, and the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, endogenously or exogenously produced, can readily attack all classes of macromolecules (proteins, DNA, unsaturated fatty acid). The disrupted oxidative-reductive milieu proceeds via lipid peroxidation, altered antioxidative enzyme activities and depletion of non-enzymatic endogenous antioxidants, several of which can de detected in the pre-symptomatic phase of many diseases. Therefore, they could represent markers of altered metabolic and physiological homeostasis. Accordingly, from the point of view of routine clinical-diagnostic practice, it would be valuable to routinely analyze OS status parameters to earlier recognize potential disease states and provide the basis for preventative advance treatment with appropriate medicines.
Mirjana Milovanović, Sonja Vučković, Milica Prostran, Saša Trailović and Milan Jovanović
This study investigated whether the L-arginine-NO system participates in the analgesic effect of flunixin meglumine in the rat. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of carrageenan (500 μg) into the rat’s hind paw. Electronic von Frey apparatus was used to determine paw withdrawal threshold induced by pressure as the painful stimulus, measured in grams (g). Flunixin meglumine (FM; 0.09-0.1 mg/kg; s.c.) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg; i.p.), given separately as a pre-treatment, i.e. 15 min before i.pl. injection of carrageenan, produced a significant antinociception. When FM (0.09 mg/kg) and a sub-effective dose of L-NAME (5 mg/kg) were co-administered, the antinociceptive effect was significantly increased in comparison with the effect of FM alone. L-arginine (L-ARG;10 mg/kg; i.p.) itself did not produce significant effect on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, but significantly reduced the antinociceptive effects of both FM and FM + L-NAME combination. The inhibition of the production of NO might be involved in the mechanism of the analgesic effect of FM.
Marko Milosavljevic, Milica Jovanovic, Dejan Zdravković, Jelena Todic and Jelena Eric
Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients and patients with one or two own teeth can be established by different treatment modalities. The most commonly used in the treatment of these patients is conventional complete denture or removable partial denture. However, due to increasing problems with this type of therapy, such as insufficient retention, stability, comfort and pain during mastication, it is suggested an overdenture supported by two natural teeth or implants. We will present series of clinical reports. In two clinical cases patients came to the dental office because of the impossibility of wearing lower partial denture, and in one case patient had problems with the upper partial denture. After clinical examination and radigraphic analysis, in all patients, dental implants were implanted. In first case there were implanted two dental implants in the region 41 and 43, in second case it was region 33, and in third case implanatiton is performed in the region of 14, 11, 21. Prosthetic rehabilitation was done after 3-months bone oseointegration period. The treatment consisted in the production of double crowns and overdentures that are retained with locator attachment. This design of the denture significantly improves the quality of patient’s life (the dentures are stable, chewing is improved, the feeling of thermal sensations of food and drink is present, the feeling of taste is complete, and the psychological patient becomes safer).
Dragana Stanisic, Radmila Obradovic, Sanja Vujovic, Milica Jovanovic and Vladimir Zivkovic
Diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease considered by the World Health Organization to be an epidemic, is now recognized as one of the factors behind the onset of periodontal disease. The connection between periodontal disease, which is an irreversible inflammatory disease of the supporting tissue of the teeth, and systemic diseases is reflected in the existence of common risk factors, subgingival dental biofilm, as a constant source of proinflamma-tory cytokines synthesized intensely in inflammatory periodontium. Diabetes mellitus leads to increased oxidative stress in periodontal tissues causing worsening of the disease and periodontopathy exacerbates deficiency of pancreatic β-cells. The most important role in primary inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of periodontopathy is played by neutrophils. Neutrophils cause periodontium destruction by the release of enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases), cytotoxic substances (free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) and the expression of membrane receptors. Matrix metalloproteinases within the “protease network” are critical to many physiological and pathological processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption and wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinases levels are elevated in patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, which may contribute to more frequent complications. In this paper, the review of available literature data shows the correlation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as well as the role of matrix metalloproteinases and oxidative stress in these. In this regard, determining the value of matrix metalloproteinases may be helpful in the diagnosis of periodontal disease complicated by diabetes mellitus. Also, the parameters of oxidative stress could help to clarify the mechanisms of pathogenesis and etiology of periodontal disease, or indicate the potential benefit of antioxidant supplementation in these individuals. As the role of matrix metalloproteinases has not been fully clarified in the pathogenesis of periodontopathy, additional studies will be needed to indicate their importance.
Milica Borovcanin, Ivan Jovanovic, Slavica Djukic Dejanovic, Gordana Radosavljevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic and Miodrag L. Lukic
The phenomenological uniqueness of each patient with schizophrenia is determined by complex symptomatology, particularly the overlapping of symptoms and their prominence in certain phases of this mental disorder. Establishing biological markers is an important step in the further objectivisation and quantification of schizophrenia. Identifying the cytokine profiles that precede a psychotic episode could direct the strategies for relapse prevention and be useful in predicting disease progression and treatment response. In the context of infl ammation, TGF-β exerts potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive functions by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis, but it can also have pro-inflammatory functions through its stimulatory effects on inflammatory Th17 cells. It has been shown that the T helper cell type-1 and type-17 responses are reduced and type-2 response is increased in patients with schizophrenia. Both data from the literature and our results also indicate the presence of an anti-inflammatory response through production of the TGF-β regulatory cytokine. A meta-analysis of plasma cytokine alterations suggested that TGF-β is the state marker for acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, and we showed that TGF-β can also be a valuable marker for psychosis. Hyperactivity of TGF-β signalling pathways in schizophrenia may be both a neuroprotective mechanism and a possible therapeutic target.
Slavoljub Živković, Milica Jovanović-Medojević, Jelena Nešković, Marijana Popović Bajić and Marija Živković Sandić
Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of new rotary NiTi instrument XP- endo SHAPER (XPS) used with two irrigation protocols on the root canal cleaning in the apical area.
Material and Methods: The research was conducted on 30 single-rooted teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons which were divided into the two groups. Instrumentation of the canals was conducted with XPS instrument and 2% solution of NaOCl was used as irrigant. Instrumentation in the first group was performed using a conventional continuous irrigation, in the second group, protocol of final irrigation was performed intermittently in 3 cycles. The SEM analysis of the apical third of the canal was performed on longitudinal root cross-section standardized photomicrography with a magnification of 2000X.
Results: Results showed that a thicker smear layer was observed in the first group and with continuous irrigation protocol (2,10) in relation to the intermittent irrigation protocol in 3 cycles (1,96), but without significant differences.The walls of the root canal in the apical third of the samples of the second group were slightly cleaner (73.3%) in comparison with the teeth of the first group (64, 7%), but also without significant differences.
Conclusions: The use of XPS and 2% solution of NaOCl in the root canal enables efficient cleaning of the apical third of tooth. The final irrigation protocol in three cycles improves the efficiency of the smear layer removal in the apical segment of the canal.
Đ. Raša Milanov, P. Milena Krstić, V. Radmila Marković, A. Dragoljub Jovanović, M. Branislav Baltić, S. Jelena Ivanović, Milica Jovetić and Ž. Milan Baltić
The aim of this study was the investigation of water, sediments and fish tissues contamination with heavy metals. All samples were taken from the Danube River in Belgrade region, a location upstream from Batajnica. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples were not detected, while concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu and As were in the range of 0.004 - 0.330 mg L-1. Iron was the most deposited metal in sediment samples in contrast to water samples where all investigated metals were detected. For the purpose of heavy metals determination in fresh fish tissue, fifteen samples of three different fish species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and wels catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined in the digestive tract, liver and muscle by absorption spectroscopy. The highest concentration of Pb was in the digestive tract in all three fish species, ranging from 0.036 to 1.518 μg g-1, while Cd was mostly deposited in the liver. Concentrations of As were in the range of 0.36 - 0.73 μg g-1 in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, 0.013 - 0.18 μg g-1 in Cyprinus carpio and 0.003 - 0.005 μg g-1 in Silurus glanis tissues, while the content of Hg was equal in all tested tissues of carp. Concentrations of all metals were found to be present in the fish samples at different levels, but these values are under the maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union (EU) and the maximum allowed concentrations (MAC) for Serbia, so the fish meat is acceptable for the human consumption.
Dragana Jovanović, Marina Roksandić-Milenković, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Vesna Ćeriman, Ivana Vukanić, Natalija Samardžić, Spasoje Popević, Branislav Ilić, Milija Gajić, Marioara Simon, Ioan Simon, Vesna Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Milica Belić, Damjan Mirkov, Zorica Šumarac and Vladislav Milenković
The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate whether soluble programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) are potential diagnostic, predictive or prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer.
Lung cancer patients (n=115) with advanced metastatic disease, 101 with non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC (77 EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients on chemotherapy, 15 EGFR mutation positive adenocarcinoma patients, 9 patients with mPD-L1 Expression ≥50% NSCLC – responders to immunotherapy), and 14 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were examined. ELISA method was used to determine sPD-L1 and SAA1 concentrations in patients’ plasma.
Significantly higher blood concentrations of sPD-L1 and SAA1 were noted in lung cancer patients compared with a healthy control group. In PD-L1+ NSCLC patients, a significantly higher sPD-L1 level was noticed compared to any other lung cancer subgroup, as well as the highest average SAA1 value compared to other subgroups.
It seems that sPD-1/PD-L1 might be a potential biomarker, prognostic and/ or predictive, particularly in patients treated with immunotherapy. Serum amyloid A1 has potential to act as a good predictor of patients’ survival, as well as a biomarker of a more advanced disease, with possibly good capability to predict the course of disease measured at different time points.