The objective of the research was to determine the cognitive basis, the classification and evaluation of the long experience of long-distance runners in the senior category in relation to the perception of running as a factor in their overall health and wellbeing. Research was conducted with a sample of male and female long-distance runners with long experience in domestic and foreign longdistance running events in veteran categories. Oral and written interviews with the same questions were used to acquire information on the correlation between holistically understood health and long-term participation in long-distance running. The interview design allowed respondents to express their opinion on the questions in more detail through additional notes. A quantitative analysis of the acquired data was conducted using standard mathematical operations and the incidence of responses in percentage terms. The hypotheses were tested using a test on the parameter p of a binomial distribution and a median test. Senior-age long-distance runners’ decision to take up running was found to have both heteronomous motivation (encouragement by a sports teacher, admiration for other runners, persuasion by colleagues) and autonomous motivation (an internal need to run, a means for overcoming mental stress and restoring internal balance, the need to lose weight, elimination of health problems, the desire to compete). The majority of runners agreed that long-distance running had a positive effect on their overall health and physical condition. Long-distance runners rated the effect of long-distance running on their social and personal wellbeing to be greater than three on a five-point scale did. There is no statistically significant difference between the number of runners who think that long practice of running has some negative effects on their health and the number of runners who think that it has no negative effects. The majority of runners think that their health is better than that of their peers who do no sport.
The Penetration of Fundamentalistic Principles through Sport in Conditions of Globalization?
The topic of this article unravels the dangers of penetration of fundamentalistic, political and ideological tendencies in the area of sport. It briefly analyzes the possibilities of sport abuse to realize the intention of some extremist groups. The infiltration of dangerous political attitudes to the sport is implemented through terrorism.
The philosophical concept of hermeneutics presents the opposite pole of human mental activities than positivism. Phenomenology, together with hermeneutics, also presents a kind of opposition to the positivistic reduction of learning the world. This paper focuses on the topic of authenticity of sport from these two (hermeneutic and phenomenological) approaches. As a basic theoretical platform Martin Heidegger’s book Time and Being is used. The authors develop a specific kind of categorization of the social groups engaged in sport events via the ancient concepts of “TECHNÉ ATHLETIKÉ” and “TECHNÉ GYMNASTIKÉ”. Two different phenomena: sport and “sport” are examined within the next part of the paper. There are some reasons mentioned in conclusions coming from the hermeneutic and phenomenological approach which help us to understand and accept the opinion that a kind of return to “techné gymnastiké” can support the authentic modes of being in human approach to sport.
The paper deals with the hermeneutical approach to active human movement and sport. This topic has been more frequently examined in literature since 2010. This paper focuses on holism and harmony within the hermeneutics of sport. Some specific holistic approaches based on different viewpoints are described here. The key task of the middle part of the paper is to question and search for authentic meanings in sport. In this context, the theory of kinestructs and kinascepts by Eleaonor Metheny is briefly explained. The final part of the paper attempts to summarize possibilities for uncovering a deeper sense of human movement in the context of holism.