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Open access

Paulo Henrique Borges, José Guilherme, Leandro Rechenchosky, Luciane Cristina Arantes da Costa and Wilson Rinadi

Abstract

The fundamental tactical principles of the game of soccer represent a set of action rules that guide behaviours related to the management of game space. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of fundamental offensive and defensive tactical principles among youth soccer players from 12 to 17 years old. The sample consisted of 3689 tactical actions performed by 48 soccer players in three age categories: under 13 (U-13), under 15 (U-15), and under 17 (U-17). Tactical performance was measured using the System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT). The Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, Wilcoxon, and Cohen’s Kappa tests were used in the study analysis. The results showed that the principles of “offensive coverage” (p = 0.01) and “concentration” (p = 0.04) were performed more frequently by the U-17 players than the U-13 players. The tactical principles “width and length” (p < 0.05) and “defensive unit” (p < 0.05) were executed more frequently by younger soccer players. It can be concluded that the frequency with which fundamental tactical principles are performed varies between the gaming categories, which implies that there is valuation of defensive security and a progressive increase in “offensive coverage” caused by increased confidence and security in offensive actions.

Open access

Fábio Marzliak Pozzi De Castro, Rodrigo Aquino, José Artur Berti, Luiz Guilherme Cruz Gonçalves and Enrico Fuini Puggina

Abstract

Strength training with blood flow restriction, or KAATSU training, has been shown to be as effective as conventional strength training to promote muscular strength and hypertrophy. Several mechanisms have been suggested as hypotheses to explain the adaptations arising from this training method. Among these is metabolic stress, which exerts important physiological effects and may influence the training adaptations in question. In addition, hypoxia produced by the technique may change the neural recruitment pattern. Growth hormone (GH) concentrations increase as a result of practicing this method, which can trigger an increase in plasmatic and, perhaps, muscular insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The increase in concentrations of these factors can play a leading role in responses to KAATSU training. Among the effects of the GH/IGF-1 axis in muscle cells is the increase in the signalling pathway activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which has been associated with increased protein synthesis. On the other hand, the decrease in the activity of the myostatin pathway, which has an antagonistic effect to mTOR, has been demonstrated after training with occlusion. Other factors, such as increases in the expression of heat shock proteins, may play an important role in adaptations to exercise. Nitric oxide synthase could increase nitric oxide concentration, which in turn has an effect on satellite cells and blood flow. However, despite the results obtained, the transfer to other situations (e.g. speed sports) is not yet clear.

Open access

Guilherme Tucher, Flávio Antonio de Souza Castro, Nuno Domingos Garrido and Antonio José Rocha Martins da Silva

Abstract

Few functional agility tests for water polo take into consideration its specific characteristics. The preliminary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an agility test for water polo players. Fifteen players (16.3 ± 1.8 years old) with a minimum of two years of competitive experience were evaluated. A Functional Test for Agility Performance (FTAP) was designed to represent the context of this sport. Several trials were performed to familiarize the athlete with the movement. Two experienced coaches measured three repetitions of the FTAP. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), 95% limit of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM) were used for data analysis. It was considered that certain criteria of reliability measures were met. There was no significant difference between the repetitions, which may be explained by an effect of the evaluator, the ability of the players or fatigue (p > 0.05). The ICC average from evaluators was high (0.88). The SEM varied between 0.13 s and 0.49 s. The CV average considering each individual was near 6-7%. These values depended on the condition of measurement. As the FTAP contains some characteristics that create a degree of unpredictability, the same athlete may reach different performance results, increasing variability. An adjustment in the sample, familiarization and careful selection of subjects help to improve this situation and enhance the reliability of the indicators.

Open access

Guilherme Tucher, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, António José Rocha Martins da Silva and Nuno Domingos Garrido

Abstract

The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old) with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years) and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), 95% limit of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM) were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92). The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

Open access

Leandro Rechenchosky, Paulo Henrique Borges, Vanessa Menezes Menegassi, Matheus De Oliveira Jaime, José Guilherme, Israel Teoldo and Wilson Rinaldi

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the execution efficiency of core tactical principles in young soccer players and compare them among different game positions. Methods. The sample included 54 Brazilian young soccer players. Tactical performance was measured by the System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer with the GR3-3GR test in 3770 tactical actions. Friedman followed by Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse differences between tactical principles. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to compare tactical efficiency between defenders, midfielders, and forwards (p < 0.05). Results. Offensively, the results indicated that young players demonstrated less efficiency in executing the principle ‘depth mobility’ compared with ‘penetration,’ ‘offensive coverage,’ ‘width and length,’ and ‘offensive unity.’ Regarding the defensive aspects, ‘concentration’ was performed more efficiently than other principles. Comparisons between positions proved that midfielders and forwards executed ‘offensive unity’ more efficiently than defenders. Defenders tended to present high ‘defensive coverage’ efficiency when compared with ‘midfielders.’ Conclusions. High efficiency in the execution of ‘concentration’ represents an obstacle to make deep passes and hinders offensive movements between the last defender line and goal, given low efficiency of ‘depth mobility.’ Midfielders and forwards performed ‘offensive unity’ more efficiently than defenders. As for defensive principles, defenders presented better performance in ‘defensive coverage,’ giving support to the first defender. In practical applications, it is suggested that coaches of young regional soccer players carry out activities which allow depth passes to teammates as well as games to promote ‘offensive unity’ for defenders and ‘defensive coverage’ for midfielders.

Open access

Felipe José Aidar, Dihogo Gama de Matos, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, André Luiz Carneiro, Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinôco Cabral, Paulo Moreira Silva Dantas and Victor Machado Reis

Abstract

The Cerebral Vascular Accident is responsible for a significant increase in the mortality rate in individuals who have suffered this condition, regardless of the level of subsequent disability. This study aimed to analyze the influence of a strength training program on indicators of depression in survivors of the ischemic stroke. The study sample included subjects from both genders who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG) consisting of 11 subjects aged 51.7 8.0 years, and a control group (CG) consisting of 13 subjects aged 52.5 7.7 years. The EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training. Assessment was made in the pre-test before training and at the re-test after 12 weeks of training. We used the Beck Depression Inventory and evaluated 1RM. Significant differences in depression were found between post-test and pretest measurements (Δ% = -21.47%, p = 0,021) in the EG; furthermore, there were significant differences in all indicators of depression between the EG and CG after completing 12 weeks of training. There were significant gains in strength of the EG in relation to the CG. There was a negative correlation between the strength gains as determined with the 1RM test and the levels of depression, especially in lower-limb exercises. The results of this study suggest that improvements in strength are negatively correlated with levels of depression. Improvements in strength are therefore associated with a reduction in levels of depression.

Open access

Marcos A. dos Santos, José L. de Souza, Gustavo B. Lyra, Iêdo Teodoro, Ricardo A. Ferreira, Alexsandro C. dos Santos Almeida, Guilherme B. Lyra, Renan C. de Souza and Marco A. Maringolo Lemes

Abstract

The net radiation over vegetated surfaces is one of the major input variables in many models of soil evaporation, evapotranspiration as well as leaf wetness duration. In the literature there are relatively few studies on net radiation over sugarcane crop in tropical climates. The main objective of the present study was to assess the solar radiation components measured and modelled for two crop stages of a sugarcane crop in the region of Rio Largo, Alagoas, North-eastern Brazil. The measurements of the radiation components were made with a net radiometer during the dry and rainy seasons and two models were used to estimate net radiation: the Ortega-Farias model and the Monteith and Unsworth model. The highest values of net radiation were observed at the crop development stage, due mainly to the high indices of incoming solar radiation. The daily average albedos of sugarcane at the crop development and mid-season stages were 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. Both models showed a better fit for the crop development stage than for the mid-season stage. When they were inter-compared, Monteith and Unsworth model was more efficient than Ortega-Farias model, despite the dispersion of their simulated radiation components which was similar.

Open access

T. Chellappa, M. Jose Fonseca Costa, W.A. Nascimento, L. Ferreira De Lima, I. Almeida Bassan, M. Tavares, V.J. Fernandes, A. Menezes, L. Guilherme Meira, J. Telesforo Nóbrega De Medeiros and R. Maribondo Do Nascimento

Abstract

A microporous SAPO-11 Molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method, using a single agent, as an organic template: di-isopropylamine (DIPA). The obtained solid was calcined at 550◦C for three hours, after which the flow of nitrogen was exchanged for that of synthetic air and submitted for another ten hours of calcination, so as to remove the single agent: di-isopropylamine, which after the removal of the template could be observed by the high crystallization of the sample. Furthermore, the molecular sieve was characterized by XRD, SEM, TG-DTG and N2 adsorption desorption (BET analysis). The obtained catalyst proved to have a high potential catalytic activity and selectivity, through the obtained characterization results, exhibiting good hydrothermal stability. The catalytic performance of SAPO-11 was tested by the deactivation/regenerability of the coked sample, furthered by cracking of n-hexane reaction and high olefins selectivity was obtained.

Open access

Leandro Teixeira Floriano, Juliano Fernandes da Silva, Anderson Santiago Teixeira, Paulo Cesar do Nascimento Salvador, Naiandra Dittrich, Lorival José Carminatti, Lucas Loyola Nascimento and Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during the time limit at the intensity of the peak velocity of the Carminatti’s test (T-CAR). Ten professional futsal players (age, 27.4 ± 5.8 years, body mass, 78.8 ± 8.5 kg, body height, 175.8 ± 6.8 cm, body fat mass, 14.1 ± 2.6%) took part in the study. The players performed three tests, with an interval of at least 48 hours, as follows: the T-CAR to determine the peak velocity and the maximal heart rate; an incremental treadmill protocol to determine the maximal physiological responses; and a time limit running test at the peak velocity reached in the T-CAR. During the last two tests, a portable gas analyzer was used for direct measurement of cardiorespiratory variables. It was shown that the peak velocity was not significantly different from the maximal aerobic speed achieved in the laboratory (p = 0.213). All athletes reached their maximum oxygen uptake during the time limit test. The maximum oxygen uptake achieved during the time limit test was not different from that observed in the laboratory condition (51.1 ± 4.7 vs. 49.6 ± 4.7 ml·kg-1·min-1, respectively, p = 0.100). In addition, Bland and Altman plots evidenced acceptable agreement between them. On average, athletes took ~140 s to achieve maximum oxygen uptake and maintained it for ~180 s. Therefore, the peak velocity intensity can be used as an indicator of maximal aerobic power of futsal athletes and the time limit can be used as a reference for training prescription.