Jorge Diaz-Cidoncha Garcia, Ignacio Refoyo Román, Julio Calleja-González and Alexandre Dellal
There has been a lot of research that enabled soccer to improve: its technique, tactics and strategy through analysis and training. Nevertheless, players’ need to interact with each other turns any defending or attacking situation into complex solutions with a wide range of variables to be considered, in which the player is never isolated and must make the move that has the most positive impact on play. Fifty-four sided games played in three different formats (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9) and with two age groups (U9 and U14) were filmed at three soccer clubs in Spain in order to identify the most relevant attacking moves, from a technical and tactical perspective. This study used the observational method; it is descriptive and is applied through well-prepared systematic quantitative observation in a natural environment. A key part of the method involved viewing the match recordings and logging moves that had been categorised beforehand. Cohen’s Kappa analysis showed that the results for the most representative variables presented a substantial degree of concordance (0.61-0.80). The results show that there were significant variations depending on the game format, and the following study will present a description and analysis of the aspects that had considerable influence on attacking moves in different formats of sided games (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9). The study also presents various practical applications for the area of training and analysing both youth and professional soccer.
Daniel Mon-López, Maria S. Zakynthinaki, Carlos Alberto Cordente and Jorge García-González
The ability to stabilize the gun, a crucial factor for performance in air pistol Olympic shooting, is thought to be strongly related to the muscular work of the shooter´s shoulder and forearm. The objective of the present study was to confirm this relationship by analysing the influence of maximal finger flexor forces and maximal isometric shoulder force on performance in female air pistol shooting. Twenty‐three female pistol shooters participated in the study. Handgrip and shoulder force data were recorded under competition conditions, during the official training time of national Spanish championships on the day previous to the competition and at the official training stands. Performance was measured as the total score of 40 shots at competition. Linear regressions between performance and age, weight, height, training experience, body mass index (BMI), mean and maximal finger flexor and shoulder forces were calculated. Significant correlations were found between performance and a) training hours b) peak finger flexor force relative to the BMI, and c) peak isometric force of the shoulder abduction relative to the BMI. The study concludes that there is a statistically significant correlation between performance and muscular forces exerted by the athletes relative to their BMI. Appropriate muscular strength training programs are therefore necessary in female air pistol Olympic shooting.
Roberto González-Garduño, María E. López Arellano, Pedro Mendoza de Gives, Javier Arece García, Carine Marie-Magdeleine, Glafiro Torres Hernández, Jorge Oliva Hernández and J. Alfonso Hinojosa-Cuéllar
This study determined the immunoglobulin (A and G) activity against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and also the hematological parameters in four beef-calf breeds naturally infected in a tropical region of Mexico. Thirty-six infected calves were used to determine the fecal nematode egg counts (FEC), the IgA and IgG activity in serum and saliva, the packed cell volume (PCV), the plasmatic protein (PP) and the differential leukocyte counts. These parameters were measured for a five-month period. ELISA assay was performed using adult worm crude antigen (AWCA) from Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Mecistocirrus digitatus and Cooperia punctata. The variables were analyzed using a fixed model according to the breed group. The FEC records (means ± standard deviation) for the different breeds were: Brangus (122±115), Charolais (391±507), Guzerat (294±326) and Brown Swiss (413±395). No statistical differences (P>0.05) were found among breeds. Cooperia and Haemonchus were the main identified genera in the coprocultures. Differences in hematological parameters were observed among breeds (P<0.01); Guzerat showed the highest PCV (42.6±4.7%). The lowest leukocyte counts were observed in the Charolais breed (9.2±2.4 × 109 cells L-1). Differences between Guzerat and Charolais were only detected in eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Increased activity of IgA was observed against M. digitatus (21% OD) compared with the response against C. punctata in serum samples (13% OD). The lowest IgA activity in serum and saliva was found in Guzerat calves. Charolais and Brown Swiss showed the highest IgA activity in serum and the highest value in saliva was found in Brangus.