Reduction of social loafing in the organization and increase of group synergy are integral objectives of human resource management, setting high requirements to the quality of managerial solutions. The purpose of this research is to develop managerial solutions that increase the effect of group synergy and reduce the spread of social loafing. The article analyses the concept of the social loafing phenomenon distinguishing the essential demotivators in work groups of organizations. The reasons of occurrence and existence of social loafing are analysed as well, differentiating them into groups. The authors also discuss beliefs and behaviour of employees in organizations that lead to the emergence and (or) suppression of the social loafing phenomenon. Based on a comparative and systemic logical analysis of scientific literature, as well as the results of empirical research, there are developed managerial solutions using the modelling method.
The article deals with the constituents of organizational commitment and organizational cynicism and in order to concisely present systematised material disclosing the very essence of the phenomena, the authors analyse their interrelation, the specificity of development (organizational commitment) and management (organizational cynicism), their causes, importance and / or consequences caused. The aim of research is to distinguish the dimensions of the relationship of these phenomena highlighting the quintessence of organizational commitment and organizational cynicism.
The purpose of this research is to elaborate development perspectives of the social group cohesion seeking to reduce the incidence of the phenomenon. The authors analyse theoretical and empirical studies on social loafing and based on this analysis try to identify the causes of the phenomenon. In the article, analysis of the concept of social loafing is presented, distinguishing the essential demotivating factors in working groups of organisations. Moreover, the reasons of occurrence and existence of social loafing are analysed in a way of grouping them. The beliefs of employees and their behaviours conditioned by them are discussed, determining the emergence and/or suppression of social loafing.
This research, based on the analysis of social business models’ concepts, aims to identify tendencies of social business models implementation in Lithuania. The theoretical part of the article highlights the main features of a pure social business model and a hybrid social business model, as well as discusses their differences. Having evaluated the implementation state of social business models, the authors reveal that the existing practice of public enterprises restricts development of social business potential, mainly accountability and transparency of social business. Therefore, transition of public enterprises to other forms of social business models should be promoted so that to ensure competitiveness in the market and continuous pursuit of social objectives. The findings revealed that the most popular forms of social business in Lithuania are volunteering, charitable activities, and sponsorship. However, despite the fact that some practices of social business are applied, development of social business models is a little-known phenomenon to the public thus might be confused with the definition of a social enterprise.