Jolanta Zdybel, Tomasz Cencek, Jacek Karamon and Teresa Kłapeć
The objective of the study was to determine the degree of municipal wastewater contamination with intestinal parasite eggs of the genera Ascaris, Toxocara, and Trichuris at individual stages of treatment, and indication of potentially weak points in the hygienisation of sewage sludge. The study was conducted in 17 municipal mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plants which, to a slight degree, differed in the technological process of wastewater treatment and the method of hygienisation of sewage sludge. The selected treatment plants, located in seven regions, included five classified as large agglomerations (population equivalent - PE >100 000), ten as medium-size (PE 15 000-100 000), and two as smaller size with PE 10 000 - 5000. The largest number of viable eggs of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp., and Trichuris spp. was found in the sewage sludge collected from the primary settling tank. A slightly lower number of the eggs were found in the samples of excess sludge, which indicates that the sedimentation process in the primary settling tank is not sufficiently long to effectively separate parasites’ eggs from the sewage treated. The number of eggs of Ascaris spp. and Toxocara spp. in the fermented sludge was nearly 3 times lower than that in the raw sludge. The effectiveness of hygienisation of dehydrated sewage sludge by means of quicklime was confirmed in two wastewater treatment plants, with respect to Ascaris spp. eggs, in three plants with respect to Toxocara spp. eggs, and in one plant with respect to Trichuris spp. eggs. The mean reduction of the number of eggs was 65%, 61%, and 100%, respectively. In one wastewater treatment plant, a reduction in the number of viable eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris species was also noted as a result of composting sludge by 85% and 75%, respectively. In the remaining treatment plants, no effect of hygienisation of sewage sludge was observed on the contents of viable eggs of these nematodes.
Tomasz Cencek, Jacek Karamon, Jacek Sroka and Jolanta Zdybel
This article presents the essential stages leading to development of a modified method for Hypoderma bovis protein transfer, and estimation of the usefulness of semi-quantitative densitometric analysis of western-blottig results. The principal of the method was to incubate the gel obtained with the native electrophoresis method in buffer containing SDS prior to transfer of the separated proteins of L1 H. bovis onto nitrocellulose membrane. In two experiments, the authors estimated the efficacy of the new method and the possibility of using this method for semi-quantitative densitometric investigations.
Joanna Dąbrowska, Jacek Karamon, Maciej Kochanowski, Jacek Sroka, Jolanta Zdybel and Tomasz Cencek
Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been traditionally identified as a cause of reproductive tract disease in cattle and gastrointestinal tract infection in cats. Moreover, T. foetus is also well known as a commensal of the nasal cavity, intestines, and stomach in swine. In this review we describe T. foetus as a pathogen dangerous to more than one animal host, diagnostic and taxonomic aspects of this infection, and the extent to which isolates from different hosts share genetic identity.
Jacek Karamon, Jacek Sroka, Tomasz Cencek, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Chmurzyńska, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Jolanta Zdybel, Piotr Nowak, Jolanta Kędzierska and Piotr Dębiak
The aim of the study was to optimise selected PCR methods for identification of T. solium, and to compare their effectiveness and usefulness. The investigation concerned three PCR methods described earlier: PCR I (specific to oncospherespecific protein Tso31 gene), PCR II (specific to large subunit rRNA gene), and PCR III (cytochrome c oxidases ubunit 1 gene). Each of them needed optimisation in connection with some changes in the procedures. Among the examined procedures, PCR I was found to be the most useful, requiring the least corrections during optimisation - only a higher concentration of polymerase was necessary. Testing an optimised PCR II method showed strong unspecific reactions with E. granulosus and T. saginata. This method was not considered diagnostically useful in distinguishing T. solium. PCR III method yielded products only when annealing temperature was lowered by 2 C. Under such conditions, there were no unspecific reactions with three others Taenidae parasites; however, annealing at a temperature only 1oC lower generated a distinct unspecific PCR product from T. saginata DNA. Therefore, this method was of limited usefulness. Comparison of the effectiveness of the two selected methods (PCR I and III) in detection of T. solium in successive DNA dilutions showed a large difference between them: in the same DNA sample, PCR I showed positive results in a sample diluted 1:3200, while PCR III failed at dilutions greater than 1:50. The results showed that among the three different methods used in the investigations, the most specific and effective for identification of T. solium was PCR I.
Jacek Karamon, Małgorzata Samorek-Pieróg, Bożena Moskwa, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Jolanta Zdybel and Magdalena Włodarczyk
Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland), with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.
Material and Methods: Intestines from 53 raccoon dogs and 66 red foxes were examined with the use of sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). Samples of faeces from 51 red foxes and 50 raccoon dogs were examined with the use of flotation method.
Results: Parasitic helminths were found by SCT in 98.5% of red foxes and 96.2% of raccoon dogs. Both species were infected with: Alaria alata (93.9% and 94.3%, respectively), hookworms (68.2% and 83.0%), Apophallus spp. (7.6% and 15.1%), Mesocestoides spp. (57.6% and 24.5%), Taenia spp. (40.9% and 1.9%), and Toxocara/Toxascaris nematodes (33.3% 15.1%). Echinococcus multilocularis was detected only in red foxes (6.1%), but trematodes Echinostomatidae and nematodes Molineus spp. only in raccoon dogs (18.9% and 41.5%, respectively). Additionally, Capillaria spp. eggs were detected by flotation method in 78.4% of foxes and 20.0% of raccoon dogs.
Conclusion: The study showed a very high percentage of red foxes and raccoon dogs infected with intestinal helminths in the Augustów Primeval Forest. Moreover, dangerous zoonotic parasites also were found, which should be taken into consideration in the assessment of infection risk for humans in this region.