The present paper discusses the problem of dental anxiety. Based on the scientific review of Polish literature of the past 10 years, there are discussed causes of dental anxiety in different age groups and the methods of assessing the level of anxiety – physiological, behavioral, projection and psychological. Dental anxiety affects the patients’ attitude towards their own health, confidence in dentist, the frequency of reporting to the dental prophylaxis and treatment, which translates into oral health. It is also a major impediment to everyday clinical practice of a dentist.
Jolanta Szymańska, Agnieszka Koszuta and Joanna Rosiak
Introduction. Many factors affect the oral health of the population. These include individual factors, the effectiveness of dental care, life styles and political, economic and environmental factors. Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the type of financing dental care and frequency of dental visits among patients treated with implants because of missing teeth. Material and methods. The survey was conducted among 464 patients of both genders aged 20-74 years, treated with dental implants at the Non-Public Healthcare Centre “Dental” in Tomaszów Mazowiecki. The patients answered questions included in anonymous questionnaire. The questions concerned age, education, type of dental care financing and frequency of dental visits. Results. Results of the survey indicate that among patients treated with implants there were over 14-times more people benefiting from dental care in private clinics providing preventive and restorative treatments at full cost, compared with people using dental services funded by the National Health Fund. Just over 16% of the surveyed patients frequently enough, i.e. at least once in 6 months reported to the dentist. The frequency of dental visits increased with the education level - people with vocational and secondary education most often visited a dentist irregularly, when necessary, while those with higher education - once a year. Patients below 60 years reported to the dentist 1-2 times a year, whereas older - irregularly, when necessary. Conclusion. In preparing the patient for the treatment of missing teeth with implants one should be aware of his need for paying special attention to oral health and regular, sufficiently frequent follow-up visits which has a substantial impact on the course and therapeutic success in the implant prosthetic treatment
Standard caries diagnostic methods include a visual tactile method, as well as several radiographic methods. The former is a subjective method, while bitewing radiographs and digital radiographs (radiovisiography) enable detection of caries lesions only after 30% of hard dental tissue mineral substances have been lost. The paper presents methods based on electrical and optical phenomena that allow early caries diagnosis. Strengths and weaknesses of each presented method are discussed, basing this on recent literature review. The methods of caries detection generally used in daily clinical practice, combined with alternative methods, make it possible to significantly increase the effectiveness of dental caries diagnosis.
Dental care in Poland is based both on the public system (reimbursement by the National Health Fund) and on the private funding (non-reimbursed). The aim of the paper was an analysis of the structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office. The study material was medical documentation of 669 patients treated for 3 months (the third quarter of 2013) at a general dental care office. The structure of therapeutic procedures, with the exception of orthodontic and prosthetic treatment, was analyzed, taking into account the patients’ gender, age, place of residence, the kind of procedure, and the payment type they made. The procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund constituted 60.1% of all the procedures provided to patients at a dental office. Both among the procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund and non-reimbursed procedures, the therapeutic procedures prevailed significantly over the prophylactic ones; in all age groups conservative treatment was predominant. An increase in the number of extractions in patients over 40 years of age, in comparison to younger patients, was found. The number of the dental procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund, compared to the number of the non-reimbursed ones, increased with the patients’ age.
Beata Pawłowska, Emilia Potembska and Jolanta Szymańska
Introduction. Dependence on the Internet and online games is a growing problem worldwide. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between girls and boys as well as between adolescents living in urban vs. rural areas in regard to prevalence of playing online games, the amount of time devoted to playing games, the severity of symptoms of online gaming addiction, and preferences for game genres. Also, significant predictors of online game addiction in the studied group of young people were identified. Material and methods. The study involved 827 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. When it comes to 488 (60.02%) of them, they lived in the countryside and 325 (39.98%) in a city. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Online Gaming Addiction Questionnaire and the Disturbed Family Relations Questionnaire, all developed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Results. Statistically significant differences were found between girls and boys and between adolescent urban and rural dwellers in prevalence of playing online games, severity of online gaming addiction symptoms, preferences for specific game genres, and the amount of time spent playing online games. Conclusions. 1. Significantly more boys than girls played online games. Boys devoted more time to playing and had more severe symptoms of addiction to online games. 2. Adolescent city dwellers spent significantly more time playing online games, mainly to relieve boredom and experience new sensations, than young people living in the countryside. 3. Major predictors of online gaming addiction included male gender, urban residence, domestic violence, mother’s child-raising rules being challenged by the father, and the child’s sense of responsibility for his/her parents.
An entrepreneur is someone that engages in a business activity on their own behalf. An entrepreneur might be a natural person, legal person and an organizational unit without legal personality, to which the legal capacity is given by a separate act. Regarding the current legislation, Supreme Court rulings and opinions contained in publications, the authors discuss the legal aspects of entrepreneur’s running an autonomous public health care facility. Since the act on medical activity has become law, both the status of health care facilities and the case law concerning their status as enterprises changed.
Dental erosion is described as an irreversible loss of dental hard tissue resulting from exposure to non-bacterial acids or chelating substances. It may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors. In the former case, food, drink, as well as the environment might be sources of acids; in the latter, acids flowing into the oral cavity from the stomach and duodenum.
Exogenous dental erosive lesions are localized mainly on the labial surfaces of the anterior teeth of the maxilla, while the endogenous ones can be found on the palatal and masticatory surfaces of the maxilla and the masticatory and buccal surfaces of the mandible.
Reduced saliva secretion, which occurs in a number of diseases, also influences dental erosion, while erosion-causing factors and aggressive tooth brushing immediately after consuming acidic food increases the range and depth of erosion cavities.
The consequence of dental erosion is teeth hypersensitivity, which results from exposure of dental tubules and of the pulp leading to the loss of tooth vitality and decrease in occlusal height.
Treatment of exogenous dental erosion consists in changing nutritional and hygienic habits. In the case of endogenous erosion, however, the therapy should address mainly an underlying disease. Worn teeth surfaces should be restored with conservatory or/and prosthetic methods.
In the context of an increasing prevalence of dental erosion in the population, it is necessary to develop and implement prophylactic measures, including broadly understood health education on the risk factors, preventive activities, and possibilities of diagnosis and therapy.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the survival of implants with different implant-abutment connection systems, in patients who had two kinds of implants implanted. In total, 240 implants were implanted - 91 implants with conical abutment Morse connection, and 149 with an internal hexagonal connection. During the follow-up period of 3 years and 10 months, the percentage of lost implants with a conical implant-abutment connection was 1.1%. Regarding the implants with hexagonal implant-abutment connection, this figure was 0.7%. Our work shows that there is a need for further research on the survival of dental implants. In this, the influence of other factors should be explored that are related both to the specific implant treatment, as well as to socio-demographic factors
We analyzed the relationship between marginal bone loss around dental implants and selected personal characteristics of patients (gender, age and cigarette smoking) undergoing dental rehabilitation because of missing teeth. The study comprised 28 patients aged 37-66 years (11 men and 17 women) who had 240 implants inserted. The assessment of marginal bone loss in the examined patient cohort was made based on ortho-pantomographic X-ray images. For evaluation of the condition of the marginal bone around the implants during 46-month follow-up, with relation to the sociodemographic features of the patient, multi-generational linear models were used. Studies show that the loss of marginal bone around the implant increased with the age of the patient, but did not correlate significantly with the patient’s gender or smoking habit.
Cost optimization in health care is based on starting enterprises that employ workers who, after full-time work, perform the same or similar activities for the employer. This violates the social security legislation and creates both legal and financial risks. Using the current regulations, as well as Supreme Court rulings and opinions contained in the publications, the present paper analyzes the legal aspects regarding the phenomenon observed in the labor market.