Agnieszka Kaminska, Anna Malm and Jolanta Szymanska
Introduction.C. albicans genome sequencing enables investigation of the role of particular genes in biofilm formation involving the yeast-like fungi.
Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the genotypes of C. albicans isolates on the basis of the presence of the selected genes involved in biofilm formation.
Material and methods. The study material included C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of 654 healthy individuals. The strain biofilm-forming capacity was estimated with the MTT assay and menadione. The presence of HWP1, ALS3, TUP1, NGR1, SAM2 and CYS3 genes was investigated.
Results. In total, 15 gene combinations were found, including nine gene combinations for strains with a confirmed biofilm-forming capacity, 11 – for the strains without this capacity, and five – independent of biofilm-forming capacity. A combination involving all the genes occurred in 72.5% of all biofilm-forming strains and in 53.8% of all strains that do not form biofilm. Moreover, the genetic material of 14.3% of all strains not involved in biofilm formation did not contain any of the studied genes. For one of the biofilm-species, no analyzed genes were found.
1. The absence of correlation between gene combinations HWP1, ALS3, TUP1, NGR1, SAM2 and CYS3 and biofilm-forming capacity of the studied C. albicans strains confirms the multigenetic – and not yet fully known – molecular basis of the formation of this structure. This result corresponds to the data reported by other researchers.
2. Knowledge on the genetic foundations of biofilm formation is still developing and the list of biofilm-related genes has been considerably extended.
3. The absence of correlation between the combinations of investigated genes and the biofilm-forming capacity of the studied C. albicans strains confirms a multigenetic, basis of this structure.
4. The research on genes activated or inhibited during biofilm formation is extremely important, because it would enable the development of effective methods to disturb the biofilm forming process at the molecular level. There is a need for such methods in our clinical practice to prevent biofilm formation in the oral cavity.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the survival of implants with different implant-abutment connection systems, in patients who had two kinds of implants implanted. In total, 240 implants were implanted - 91 implants with conical abutment Morse connection, and 149 with an internal hexagonal connection. During the follow-up period of 3 years and 10 months, the percentage of lost implants with a conical implant-abutment connection was 1.1%. Regarding the implants with hexagonal implant-abutment connection, this figure was 0.7%. Our work shows that there is a need for further research on the survival of dental implants. In this, the influence of other factors should be explored that are related both to the specific implant treatment, as well as to socio-demographic factors
An entrepreneur is someone that engages in a business activity on their own behalf. An entrepreneur might be a natural person, legal person and an organizational unit without legal personality, to which the legal capacity is given by a separate act. Regarding the current legislation, Supreme Court rulings and opinions contained in publications, the authors discuss the legal aspects of entrepreneur’s running an autonomous public health care facility. Since the act on medical activity has become law, both the status of health care facilities and the case law concerning their status as enterprises changed.
The present paper discusses the problem of dental anxiety. Based on the scientific review of Polish literature of the past 10 years, there are discussed causes of dental anxiety in different age groups and the methods of assessing the level of anxiety – physiological, behavioral, projection and psychological. Dental anxiety affects the patients’ attitude towards their own health, confidence in dentist, the frequency of reporting to the dental prophylaxis and treatment, which translates into oral health. It is also a major impediment to everyday clinical practice of a dentist.
Dental erosion is described as an irreversible loss of dental hard tissue resulting from exposure to non-bacterial acids or chelating substances. It may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors. In the former case, food, drink, as well as the environment might be sources of acids; in the latter, acids flowing into the oral cavity from the stomach and duodenum.
Exogenous dental erosive lesions are localized mainly on the labial surfaces of the anterior teeth of the maxilla, while the endogenous ones can be found on the palatal and masticatory surfaces of the maxilla and the masticatory and buccal surfaces of the mandible.
Reduced saliva secretion, which occurs in a number of diseases, also influences dental erosion, while erosion-causing factors and aggressive tooth brushing immediately after consuming acidic food increases the range and depth of erosion cavities.
The consequence of dental erosion is teeth hypersensitivity, which results from exposure of dental tubules and of the pulp leading to the loss of tooth vitality and decrease in occlusal height.
Treatment of exogenous dental erosion consists in changing nutritional and hygienic habits. In the case of endogenous erosion, however, the therapy should address mainly an underlying disease. Worn teeth surfaces should be restored with conservatory or/and prosthetic methods.
In the context of an increasing prevalence of dental erosion in the population, it is necessary to develop and implement prophylactic measures, including broadly understood health education on the risk factors, preventive activities, and possibilities of diagnosis and therapy.
Jolanta Szymanska, Agnieszka Koszuta and Katarzyna Drop
The number of patients who take the decision to have implantoprosthetic treatment keeps increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the sources of knowledge about possibilities of treating missing teeth with implants. The survey was conducted among 464 patients of both sexes aged from 20 to 74 years, treated with dental implants at the Non-Public Healthcare Centre “Dental” in Tomaszów Mazowiecki. The patients answered questions in an anonymous questionnaire. The questions included age, place of residence and source of knowledge about implants. Persons aged up to 40 years frequently obtained knowledge about the possibility of using implants from the media; patients aged 40-60 years - from their dentist, and people over 60 years of age - from family or friends. Persons living in rural areas or small town frequently acquired knowledge of the possibility of dental implants from the dentist, the city residents - from family or friends. The results of the survey indicate that the dentist is most commonly the main source of information about the possibility of replacing the missing teeth with implants, less family and friends and the media. The source of acquiring knowledge in this field varies depending on the age and place of residence of the persons concerned.
Social, economic and technological progress results in an increasing range of treatment and rehabilitation methods for patients with partial or complete edentulism. The role of the dentist is to inform the patient about the full range of available missing teeth treatment options leading to complete rehabilitation of the masticatory organ in agreement with the patient’s aesthetic and functional expectations. The aim of the paper was to identify the type of prostheses used by patients before opting for implantsupported teeth replacements, according to the patients’ age, sex, marital status, place of residence and education. The study covered 464 patients, women and men, aged 20-74, treated with dental implants. The patients answered questions in an anonymous questionnaire. The influence of the prosthetic replacement type according to age and marital status was highly statistically significant, whereas it was statistically significant according to sex, place of residence and education. The female respondents who previously used tissue-borne complete or partial dentures opted for implant treatment more frequently. The respondents younger than 40 and between 40-60 years of age who did not previously used any prosthetic replacements opted for implant treatment more frequently. The respondents who did not use any prosthetic replacements decided to undergo implant treatment most frequently, regardless of their marital status, education and place of residence. The patients opted for implant treatment to improve their quality of life, despite the high cost of such therapy.
Dental care in Poland is based both on the public system (reimbursement by the National Health Fund) and on the private funding (non-reimbursed). The aim of the paper was an analysis of the structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office. The study material was medical documentation of 669 patients treated for 3 months (the third quarter of 2013) at a general dental care office. The structure of therapeutic procedures, with the exception of orthodontic and prosthetic treatment, was analyzed, taking into account the patients’ gender, age, place of residence, the kind of procedure, and the payment type they made. The procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund constituted 60.1% of all the procedures provided to patients at a dental office. Both among the procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund and non-reimbursed procedures, the therapeutic procedures prevailed significantly over the prophylactic ones; in all age groups conservative treatment was predominant. An increase in the number of extractions in patients over 40 years of age, in comparison to younger patients, was found. The number of the dental procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund, compared to the number of the non-reimbursed ones, increased with the patients’ age.
Jolanta Szymańska, Agnieszka Koszuta and Joanna Rosiak
Introduction. Many factors affect the oral health of the population. These include individual factors, the effectiveness of dental care, life styles and political, economic and environmental factors. Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the type of financing dental care and frequency of dental visits among patients treated with implants because of missing teeth. Material and methods. The survey was conducted among 464 patients of both genders aged 20-74 years, treated with dental implants at the Non-Public Healthcare Centre “Dental” in Tomaszów Mazowiecki. The patients answered questions included in anonymous questionnaire. The questions concerned age, education, type of dental care financing and frequency of dental visits. Results. Results of the survey indicate that among patients treated with implants there were over 14-times more people benefiting from dental care in private clinics providing preventive and restorative treatments at full cost, compared with people using dental services funded by the National Health Fund. Just over 16% of the surveyed patients frequently enough, i.e. at least once in 6 months reported to the dentist. The frequency of dental visits increased with the education level - people with vocational and secondary education most often visited a dentist irregularly, when necessary, while those with higher education - once a year. Patients below 60 years reported to the dentist 1-2 times a year, whereas older - irregularly, when necessary. Conclusion. In preparing the patient for the treatment of missing teeth with implants one should be aware of his need for paying special attention to oral health and regular, sufficiently frequent follow-up visits which has a substantial impact on the course and therapeutic success in the implant prosthetic treatment
Cost optimization in health care is based on starting enterprises that employ workers who, after full-time work, perform the same or similar activities for the employer. This violates the social security legislation and creates both legal and financial risks. Using the current regulations, as well as Supreme Court rulings and opinions contained in the publications, the present paper analyzes the legal aspects regarding the phenomenon observed in the labor market.