Organic matter takes part in all soil processes and influences the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. The paper presents the analysis of heavy metal contents (Zn, Pb, Cd) in soil and biomass of darnel multifloral (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cultivated at diverse conditions of soil reaction and organic matter content. A brown coal preparation (Rekulter) was applied as the source of organic matter in autumn 1999 to the studied soil, which was contaminated with cadmium, lead and zinc. The limiting influence of Rekulter on the uptake of heavy metals by darnel multifloral (two cuts of the test plant) was the highest in the case when the largest dose was applied to soil with the highest pH (about 6.0). Bioaccumulation indexes (BI) for Cd, Pb, Zn indicate the mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils. The BI for particular heavy metals were generally low, with the lowest in the case when the largest dose of Rekulter was applied to all cuts of the test plant
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of organic matter from different sources on the yield of winter wheat and macroelements content in it. The experiment was carried out in stoneware pots sank into the ground filled up with 56.4 kg of soil: Haplic Luvisols formed from loamy sand. The soil was slightly acidic. The soil was mixed up with liquid form of salts: Cd(NO3)2, Pb(CH3COO)2 and ZnSO4. To the soil a brown coal preparation, so called “Rekulter”, brown coal, peat and farmyard manure were applied in the amount of 180, 140, 390 and 630 g per pot, which is equivalent to 5 Mg of organic carbon per ha. Winter wheat Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare (L.) for grain was cultivated. The manurial value of organic substance originated from different sources expressed as the plants' crop was the highest for Rekulter and the lowest for peat. The addition of organic substance to soil contaminated with heavy metals causes the higher content of potassium, magnesium and nitrogen in winter wheat's grain. The content of calcium and sodium in winter wheat grain's did not depend from addition of organic matter to soil. Organic matter added into contaminated soil increased the uptake of main macroelements by winter wheat straw. Organic matter fertilization broadened the K: (Ca + Mg) ratio in grain and straw.
The analysis of soil spatial property variability (fuzziness) are important for the interpretation of the site-specific ecosystems not only with respect to process investigations but also for soils modelling. The objective of the study was an attempt to identify the primary parameters influencing the spatial variability of soils available without the necessity of carrying out time-consuming and costly field and laboratory research. The research was carried out in the Czermin commune. The research included the application of geostatistical methods and interpretation of source materials, including (i) digital soil-agricultural map, (ii) annex to the soil-agricultural map at a scale of 1:5000, (iii) soil quality contours and (iv) digital terrain model. The verification of field research results (test polygon) involved the performance of vertical transect soil profiles. Genetic horizon patterns and their morphological parameters were determined. Soil samples were collected for laboratory analyses, involving the determination of the basic physical soil properties. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistics. The database based on soil quality contours is more detailed than that based on the soil-agricultural map, because there is no loss of important data concerning the division of land. Obtaining data concerning soil type and/or agricultural usefulness complexes would require conducting a generalisation process. Nearby soil pits from 1974 and new (2015) open pits were located. Soil profile for the open pits from 2015 were described and soil samples were taken for basic physical soil properties.