The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between topography of undulated morainic plateau of postglacial landscape and distribution of organic carbon stocks in soil toposequences. The mean value of the soil organic carbon stocks (SOCS) for Retisols/Luvisols (RT/LV) was statistically lower than for the Phaeozems/Gleysols (PH/GL) but for RT/LV a higher variation of SOCS in comparison to PH/GL was observed. On the basis of Pearson correlation coefficient, the cartographic depth to water (DTW), the topographic wetness index (TWI) and the saga wetness index (SWI) were the most strongly correlated with the SOCS from among 13 analysed topographic attributes. In addition, the DTW was more correlated with SOCS than other topographic variables. Moreover, the DTW based on the channel networks with 2 ha flow initiation thresholds better correlate with SOCS than DTW obtained on the basis of channel networks with 1 ha and 4 ha flow initiation thresholds. Using Stepwise multiple regression analysis (SMLR), we concluded that the topographic attributes controlling the soil water content and slope shape had most impact on SOCS of the undulated morainic plateau of agricultural ecosystem. In this landform, where the RT/LV and PH/GL soil sequences dominate, the SOCS can be estimated by the DTW, TWI and GC (general curvature) with an estimation error of 0.21 kg m−2. In view of the increasing availability of LiDAR data and power of GIS tools, the use of topographic metrics to assess spatial variability of soil properties will play an increasingly important role in the estimation of soil properties.
The investigation was carried out in the catena of Retisols within the Opalenica Plain. The aim of the study was to characterize the variation in texture of selected Retisols formed from ground moraine glacial till of Leszno Phase of Vistulian glaciation. The analyzed soils are characterized by a similar degree of soil material segregation, which is characteristic for the typical glacial till. Particle size distribution and granulometric indices lead to conclusion that soils located in the catena on summit and shoulder positions, have vertical texture distribution formed primarily by lessivage process. Sandy texture of eluvial horizons noted in the Retisol of the slope pediment can be a consequence of not only lessivage but also of slope forming processes that led to the appearance of lithic discontinuity. The cluster analysis using Ward’s method and 1-rPearson as the distance measure can be helpful for identification the lithogenic uniformity and/or non-uniformity of soil parent material.
The paper presents results of determination of temporal changes in water table depths in the toposequence of Retisols/Luvisols and Phaeozems/Gleysols. Assessment of temporal trends in the water table depth was made with the use of the linear regression analysis. The results obtained indicate that the mean water table depth and mean high and low water table depths were deeper in the soil at the upper part of the slope in comparison with soil located at the footslope. A higher amplitude of water table was observed in Retisols than in Gleysols but the highest variability of water table level was noted in the soils at the footslope compared to those at the slope summit. In Retisols, with each month of observation from 1993 to 2012, the water table showed a tendency to increase. These trends were the highest from January to April, which may be related to the tendency of increasing monthly sums of precipitation in December, January and February. In the Gleysol at the footslope, in the period 1993–2012 and in the vegetation season, the water table depth showed a tendency to decrease. This trend may be due to the impact of water table on the soil water content at the root zone, which is used in the process of evapotranspiration.
The objective of this study was to examine whether the Polish soil textural classification is useful for evaluation of soil water retention and hydraulic properties and, furthermore, for determining which textural classes are characterized by the highest diversity of soil water retention and hydraulic properties. The texture triangle was divided into a 1% grid of particle-size classes resulting in 5151 different data points. For each data point, soil water retention parameters and saturated hydraulic conductivity were obtained using the ROSETTA program. The silt classes showed the highest uncertainty in the estimation of the saturated water content based on the soil texture. These classes are characterized by high variations of saturated water content within the class. Estimations of field capacity and permanent wilting point on the basis of textural classes are encumbered with highest errors for gp, pg, pl and pyg soils, which are characterized by the highest values of coefficient of variation. Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity is better classified into homogeneous classes by the Polish texture classes than by the clusters obtained by the k-means cluster analysis based on the soil hydraulic and retention properties. Soil water retention parameters are better classified into homogeneous groups by the k-means cluster analysis than by the traditional textural classes. Cluster analysis using the k-means can be helpful for grouping similar soils from the point of view of their retention properties.
The aim of the study was to characterize the interrelationship between decreased ruminal fluid pH during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and concentrations of principal constituents of milk and biochemical indices associated with nitrogen utilizations such as rumen ammonia nitrogen (RAN), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Ruminal fluid samples were obtained by rumenocentesis from 305 cows representing 13 dairy herds. The cows were divided according to ruminal fluid pH into three groups: low, moderate, and high rumen pH cows. The herds were divided into three groups on the basis of the percentages of cows with an assigned value of ruminal fluid pH: SARA-positive, SARA-risk and SARA-negative. SARA-positive herds were characterized by higher concentrations of RAN (12.6 vs. 6.9 mg/dL), BUN (16.2 vs. 10.1 mg/dL) and MUN (12.4 vs. 9.1 mg/dL) compared to SARA-negative herds. Similarly, low-rumen pH cows had greater concentrations of RAN, BUN and MUN than high-rumen pH cows (11.9 vs. 5.8 mg/dL, 19.9 vs. 14.1 mg/dL, and 12.3 vs. 9.5 mg/dL, respectively). Moreover, SARA-positive herds and low-rumen pH cows had the highest lactose and the lowest fat concentrations in milk. The study demonstrated that the concentration of milk urea nitrogen could be considered one of the indirect and non-invasive indicators of the occurrence of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy herds.
W pracy przedstawiono sprostowania nieścisłości, jakie znalazły się w artykule Stanisława Brożka pt. „Czy sys- tematyka gleb Polski, wydanie 5. dotyczy wszystkich gleb naszego kraju" opublikowanym w Rocznikach Gleboznawczych vol. 63, nr 3, 2012: 49-56. Praca ta jednak nie jest artykułem dyskusyjnym, lecz zbiorem uwag, najczęściej nieprofesjonalnych, na temat „Systematy ki gleb Polski” wyd. 5, 2011 (SgP5). Ponieważ w arty kule ty m znalazło się wiele błędów i nieścisłości wynikają- cych z niezrozumienia przez Autora istoty systematy ki gleb, a także tekstu ocenianej ..Systematyki...’', dlatego w niniejszym opraco- waniu nie podjęto szerszej dyskusji merytorycznej, jedynie przedstawiono sprostowania do błędnych wypowiedzi Autora, które dotyczą SgP5. Tym bardziej jest to konieczne, że Autor nie jest specjalistą z zakresu systematyki gleb, a Jego artykuł został opubli- kowany w gleboznawczym czasopiśmie naukowym.