Jolanta Franczuk, Robert Rosa, Edyta Kosterna-Kelle, Anna Zaniewicz-Bajkowska, Michał Tartanus and Krystyna Chromińska
The experiment was carried out in 2007–2009. The investigated factors were: the kind of covers – without covering (control object), perforated foil with 100 holes per 1m2, polypropylene fibre weighing 17 g m−2 and broad beans cultivars – ‘Windsor Biały’, ‘Bizon’ and ‘Bachus’. Broad bean seeds were sown at the beginning of the second 10-days of April, at a spacing of 50 × 10 cm. Directly after, sowing field was covered by covers, which were left for 3 weeks. Broad bean was harvested in the stage of milky maturity of seeds. Before the harvest, the number of pods per plant was determined. During the harvest, the weight of pods and the yield of fresh seed were determined and productivity of seed from the weight of pods was calculated. Biometric parameters of pods and seeds i.e. length of pods, the number of seeds in the pod and length, width and thickness of seed was performed. It was found that the broad bean covering contributed to increase yield and improvement of the biometric parameters of pods and seeds compared to the control object without covering. The highest yield of pods and seeds produced cv ‘Bizon’. The best yield was obtained from plants covered by polypropylene fibre. The seeds of cultivated cultivars were characterized by similar parameters. Polypropylene fibre covering favoured formation of pods and seeds in the pods but did not cause changes in the seeds parameters.
Anna Zaniewicz-Bajkowska, Jolanta Franczuk, Edyta Kosterna, Robert Rosa and Marzena Panasz
The effect of foliar feeding on yield quality and the content of selected nutritive value components of three melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars
This study investigated the effect of foliar feeding with Florovit and Ekolist-Warzywa + urea liquid fertilisers on yield quality and the content of selected nutritive value components of three medium-fruit melon cultivars (‘Charentais F1’, ‘Melba’, and ‘Fiesta’). A higher total yield was harvested from plants foliar-fed with Florovit and Ekolist-Warzywa + urea compared with the control without foliar feeding. The ‘Fiesta’ cultivar was characterised by the highest total yield. The type of foliar feeding significantly affected the total number of fruit per square metre. More fruit per metre squared was produced by Florovit-fed plants in comparison to Ekolist-Warzywa + urea. ‘Charentais F1’ produced the greatest number of fruit. ‘Fiesta’ had the highest proportion of marketable fruit. The factors investigated did not have any influence on the percentage of disease-affected and unripe fruit. The greatest amount of dry matter and ascorbic acid were determined in the fruit harvested from the control and plants foliar-fed with Ekolist-Warzywa + urea, respectively. The highest levels of both components were assayed in ‘Fiesta’. Regardless of the type of foliar feeding, ‘Fiesta’ and ‘Charentais F1’ produced the highest quantity of total sugars and monosaccharaides as compared with ‘Melba’.
Edyta Kosterna, Anna Zaniewicz-Bajkowska, Jolanta Franczuk, Robert Rosa, Krystyna Chromińska, Izolda Borysiak-Marciniak and Marzena Panasz
Effect of synthetic mulches on melon (Cucumis melo L.) yielding
A field experiment was carried out in 2006-2008. The study examined the effect of soil mulching with synthetic materials (black polyethylene film, black polypropylene nonwoven 50 g m-2, and black polypropylene fabric 94 g m-2) on the fruit yield and quality of two melon cultivars (‘Seledyn’ and ‘Yupi’) grown in the field under the climatic conditions of central-eastern Poland. Specimens grown without mulching served as the control. The climatic conditions during the study years had a significant influence on the level of total, marketable and early yield of melon. The highest melon yield was obtained in 2007, which was characterised by the most favourable weather conditions for melon cultivation. The comparison of the cultivars showed that ‘Seledyn’ was better adapted to the climatic conditions of Poland. From cultivation, this cultivar achieved significantly higher early and total fruit yield compared with ‘Yupi’. ‘Seledyn’ was also characterised by a higher share of early yield of the total yield, a higher number of fruit in the early yield and a higher mean fruit weight. In turn, ‘Yupi’ produced a significantly higher share of marketable yield of the total yield and a higher number of marketable fruit.
Edyta Kosterna, Anna Zaniewicz-Bajkowska, Robert Rosa and Jolanta Franczuk
The experiment investigated the effect of different irrigation methods (no irrigation, irrigation by means of a drip tape) and method of AgroHydroGel application (control, AgroHydroGel applied to seedlings, AgroHydroGel applied to plants in the field, half of the AgroHydroGel applied to seedlings, the other half to plants in the field) on the yield level and quality of celeriac grown in the field. Irrigation significantly increased yields as well as the average weight of the marketable root; however, it had no influence on the nutrient contents. The application of AgroHydroGel to plants in the field or in a split proportion resulted in the most favourable influence on yielding. In the non-irrigated combination, AgroHydroGel applied entirely to plants in the field or in a split proportion increased marketable root yields. In the irrigated treatments, the highest yield was obtained in the plots where hydrogel was applied to plants in the field. Roots from the treatments where AgroHydroGel had been applied in a split proportion contained more dry matter as compared to the control. In the non-irrigated combination, AgroHydroGel applied entirely to plants in the field and in a split proportion increased ascorbic acid content. Simultaneously, irrigation and hydrogel application in a split proportion increased total sugar content as compared to the plants in which the hydrogel was only applied to the seedlings
Jolanta Franczuk, Romualda Jabłońska-Ceglarek, Anna Zaniewicz-Bajkowska, Edyta Kosterna and Robert Rosa
The Effect of Plant Mulches on the Nutritive Value of Red Cabbage and Onion
The effect of three methods of soil mulching: autumn or spring ploughing and leaving mulch as a cover crop on the soil surface without incorporation till the end of cabbage growth on the contents of selected nutrients in red cabbage and onion was investigated. The following plants were used as intercropped mulches: phacelia, vetch, serradella and oat. Mulching effects were compared to a non-mulched control as well as a farmyard manure application at the rate of 40 t·ha-1. Nutrient content in both vegetable species depended on weather conditions and varied in study years. Accumulation of dry matter in cabbage was favoured by phacelia and oat mulches, irrespective of the date of ploughing. Non-incorporated oat and autumn-incorporated phacelia increased dry matter content in onion. An increase in the protein content in cabbage was observed when following serradella and vetch mulches. The protein content in onion cultivated in the second year following mulching did not change significantly as a result of the influence of examined factors. Among an the mulches taken into study, serradella and oat increased the content of vitamin C in cabbage. Similarly, autumn- or spring-incorporated oat mulch and non-incorporated serradella mulch increased the content of vitamin C in onion.
Anna Zaniewicz-Bajkowska, Jolanta Franczuk and Edyta Kosterna
The effect of foliar feeding with two fluid multicomponent fertilizers was investigated: Florovit and Ekolist Warzywa + Urea on the yield and quality of three medium-fruit-size melon cultivars (‘Charentais F1’, ‘Melba’, ‘Fiesta’). Weather conditions in the consecutive years of the study had a significant influence on the yield level and quality of fruit. A higher yield of better quality was achieved in the years 2005 and 2007. That period was characterised by relatively high air temperature and low rainfall towards the end of the growing period of melon. The fertilizers applied in the experiment significantly influenced melon yielding. The plants fertilized with Ekolist Warzywa + Urea provided a higher marketable yield of melon fruit than the plants fertilized with Florovit. When applied, this fertilizer also caused an increase in flesh thickness and fruit flavour as compared with Florovit feeding. Foliar feeding with both studied patterns increased the average fruit weight and number of marketable fruit as compared to the non-fertilized treatment. Among the studied cultivars, ‘Fiesta’ gave the highest marketable yield and the best quality fruit.
Robert Rosa, Anna Zaniewicz-Bajkowska, Edyta Kosterna and Jolanta Franczuk
A field experiment was carried out in central-eastern Poland (52°06’N, 22°55’E) to investigate the effect of a sunflower catch crop used as green manure sown on three different dates (21st July, 4th and 18th August) on sweet corn yield and growth. The ‘Challenger F1’ and ‘Sweet Wonder F1’ corn cultivars were cultivated in the first year following organic fertilization. Sunflower was plowed in the third week of October. The effect of the catch crop’s green manure was compared to farmyard manure applied at a dose of 40 t ha-1 as well as a control without organic manuring. The biomass quantity and the amount of macroelements absorbed with the sunflower catch crop sown on the 21st of July was similar to the quantity absorbed with farmyard manure applied at a rate of 40 t ha-1. The quantity of organic mass and macroelements absorbed with the sunflower sown on the 4th of August was smaller by 20%, and by 50% for the 18th of August set, compared with the corn treated with farmyard manure. The effects of farmyard manure and sunflower catch crop sown on the 21st of July on the yield were similar. The marketable yield of cobs of corn plants cultivated following farmyard manure treatment and catch crop sown on the 21st of July amounted to 12.6 and 12.4 t ha-1, respectively. An application of sunflower sown as a green manure on the 2nd and 3rd date prior to corn cultivation decreased marketable cob yields by 8% and 25% as compared to the farmyard manure. The corn cobs cultivated following the sunflower sown on the 21st of July and treated with farmyard manure had the greatest mass. The corn cobs cultivated with farmyard manure were characterized by the highest biological productivity (72.1%); similar was the cob production of corn cultivated with catch crops sown on the 21st of July and the 4th of August. The ‘Challenger F1’ and ‘Sweet Wonder F1’ yields were similar. ‘Challenger F1’ produced cobs with higher mass whereas ‘Sweet Wonder F1’ produced cobs characterized by greater biological productivity.