The aim of the study was to determine the impact of increased forest management due to natural disasters on particular core unit costs. We analysed the direct costs for the Forest District of Węgierska Górka in the years 2004-2010 based on information from the State Forests lnformation System (SFIS) database compared with selected forest districts within the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Cracow (RDSF). The forest districts were divided into two groups with two and six forest districts and confidence intervals around the mean were determined and the significance of linear regressions of the considered characteristics was tested. Additionally, the growth rate (decrease) of the unit cost was calculated. Our studies showed that natural disasters affect only certain unit costs regardless of the intensity of the forest management. The increase in unit costs resulted in economic losses in forest management. A full long-term analysis of the economic impact of natural disasters should be done, taking into account the cost of reforestation of destroyed areas which may become apparent only some years later.
The aim of the study was to determine the impact of increased timber logging after natural disasters on timber assortments, unit prices, as well as average prices of timber spruce and total timber. The net sales prices of the years 2004-2010, available from the database of the State Forests Information System (SFIS) for the Forest District of Węgierska Górka, were analysed and compared to the prices of selected forest districts within the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Cracow (RDSF). The forest districts were classified based on the volume of logged timber leading to a separation into two groups of two and six forest districts. Moreover, we tested for significance in the linear trends of relevant characteristics and determined confidence intervals. Furthermore, we calculated the rate of growth (decrease) of the unit prices. Our studies show a decrease in price of only some of the timber assortments despite a significantly increased supply. Price declines were observed for the average prices of timber spruce and total timber due to their lowered quality. The price of timber assortments was mainly determined by effects of macroeconomic factors.
Stefan Tokarski, Krzysztof Tokarski and Joanna Sikora
In order to achieve competitive results, the manager must master the skills necessary for subsequent levels of management. In the present study we have verified three hypotheses regarding the correlation between the level of control and efficiency, a form of ownership and influence on the managing level to direct and indirect subordinates. Two of the hypotheses gained the expected level of significance and the third was statistically insignificant.
Due to globalization processes, the importance of the knowledge of foreign languages in almost every field of professional and private life is constantly growing. This has had an impact on the policy of many international institutions, including those in the European Union. Supporting language pluralism has been an explicit aim of the European strategy for multilingualism since 2008. The following paper presents the results of an interdisciplinary research study initiated by representatives of two different fields of science: linguistics and political science. Among the generation of young people aged between 18-24, who belong to the so-called Generation Z (White 2017: 224) and were brought up as EU citizens, the study points to a conflict between the perception of foreign language skills and opportunities to develop them using EU funds. The research aims to analyze the awareness of the EU language policy in Poland, combining questions related to people’s foreign language portfolio and knowledge about existing possibilities of learning foreign languages, as well as the ability to obtain external financing. The survey was conducted among 100 students of linguistic and non-linguistic studies and enabled the formulation of initial conclusions that are the basis for further research.
Anna Gnida, Jarosław Wiszniowski, Ewa Felis, Jan Sikora, Joanna Surmacz-Górska and Korneliusz Miksch
The paper deals with the problem of the determination of the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the nitrification process of industrial wastewater, as well as its toxicity to the test organisms. The study on nitrification efficiency was performed using wastewater from one of Polish chemical factories. The chemical factory produces nitrogen fertilizers and various chemicals. The investigated wastewater was taken from the influent to the industrial mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP guaranteed high removal efficiency of organic compounds defined as chemical oxygen demand (COD) but periodical failure of nitrification performance was noted in last years of the WWTP operation. The research aim was to establish the cause of recurring failures of nitrification process in the above mentioned WWTP. The tested wastewater was not acutely toxic to activated sludge microorganisms. However, the wastewater was genotoxic to activated sludge microorganisms and the genotoxicity was greater in winter than in spring time. Analysis of almost 3 years’ period of the WWTP operation data and laboratory batch tests showed that activated sludge from the WWTP under study is very sensitive to temperature changes and the nitrification efficiency collapses rapidly under 16°C. Additionally, it was calculated that in order to provide the stable nitrification, in winter period the sludge age (SRT) in the WWTP should be higher than 35 days.
Mariusz Kaczmarek, Joanna Maciejewska, Łukasz Spychalski, Magdalena Socha-Kozłowska, Agata Nowicka and Jan Sikora
The lung cancer is often associated with the development of pleural effusion. Neutrophils are the most numerous population of immune system cells which are an essential component of tumor leukocyte infiltration. These cells are engaged in the development and maintenance of the inflammation. It is indicated that neutrophils support the development of cancer. The aim of the study was the evaluation of neutrophils, regarding their presence and activity in pleural effusions. This was achieved by assessing of molecular structures, which are used by neutrophils in chemotaxis and phagocytosis. 60 pleural effusions and 34 peripheral blood samples received from patients and 15 peripheral blood samples from the control group were analyzed. Expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18 and CD62L molecules with use flow cytometry was evaluated. The concentration of the neutrophil elastase in pleural effusions were measured with use ELISA test. The number of neutrophils in the peripheral blood of patients with pleural effusion was lower than that observed in the control group. Neutrophils present in pleural effusions were characterized by an increased ability to chemotaxis and secrete significant amounts of neutrophil elastase. Neutrophils recruited into the pleura during the formation of the effusion are an essential element of the developing inflammatory reaction in this environment. The presence of neutrophils in pleural effusion may promote its further formation and support the development of cancer.