Differentiation of the vegetation of the Szum river (Central Roztocze)
Rivers play a very important role in the retention and transportation of water. The properties of river waters change in time and space. The unique feature occurring in rivers is matter and energy flow in one direction together with a river course. Such features as: river gradient, turbulent motion die down and the quantity of dragged material decreases. Because habitat conditions in each part of a river are different, the distribution (toposequence) of macrophytes is unique. In the last zone of the river habitat conditions are the most favorable to macrophytes development.
The investigation were carried out in one of the most interesting rivers in Central Roztocze - the river Szum. The floristic analysis and basic physical and chemical parameters were examined with typical methods of hydrobiology.
The results of investigations show the clear differentiation of habitat and floristic conditions along the river course. The specific toposequence of water vegetation in each research sites of the river Szum showed the differentiation of habitat conditions too. The highest differentiation of plant communities occurred in places being under the largest influence of the human pressure. It is also reflected in the highest value of the synanthrophic index. The river Szum creates good habitat conditions for the development of riparian vegetation, however water macrophytes were poor, so they did not find here convenient conditions for the development.
Development of floating-leaved vegetation in three lakes of varied trophy (Leczna-Wlodawa Lakeland)
Nymphaeids are a typical component of littoral vegetation in European lakes. In different types of water bodies they create large stands. This group of macrophyte species grows not deeper than 3 metres, but depending on clarity and depth. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage share and biomass of nymphaeids in investigated lakes with varying trophy and way of use. Furthermore, another aim of the study was a comparative analysis of morphometric features among dominant species of nymphaeids. The studied lakes are a group of eutrophic lakes, in various stages of its advancement from the low eutrophic Lake Płotycze Sobiborskie, through the eutrophic Lake Płotycze Urszulińskie to the highly eutrophic Lake Zienkowskie. In the studied lakes, nymphaeids formed a large part of the phytolittoral as well as macrophyte biomass, the smallest in the strongly eutrophic lake, the largest in the eutrophic lake. In the studied lakes appeared both Nymphaea candida species as well as intermediate forms. Neither the use of the lake nor habitat conditions affected the differentiation of the analysed characteristics of Nuphar lutea, while the most sensitive species was Nymphaea candida.
Macrophytes are a group of aquatic organisms affected by constant changes. One of the main factors influencing the rate and direction of these changes is the way of basin management. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changes in the management of a lake catchment area in an agricultural landscape on the qualitative and quantitative structure of macrophytes and assessment of the ecological status of the lake in question. The study was conducted in the years 1996, 1999 and 2011 in Lake Głębokie Uścimowskie. This lake is small (20.8 ha surface) and shallow (about 6 m depth). In the 1990s in Lake Głębokie Uścimowskie from 14 to 15 plant communities occurred, which occupied 2.9 ha of the lake. This represented only 14.1% of the lake. In 2011 there was a slight growth in the number of phytocenoses (16), and significant increase in the area of phytolittoral - 5.98 ha. In the 1990s the range of ESMI index values, allowed the lake to be categorized as one with poor ecological status, but already in 2011 after a similar analysis, the lake was ranked in the upper limits of moderate ecological status of lakes. One of the main reasons for the rise in the ecological status of Lake Głębokie Uścimowskie, determined on the basis of the macrophyte index, as well as for the slight decline in trophy, was probably a sewerage system built in 2006 in Głębokie village.
Hydrobotanic characteristics of some peat-pits of the Polesie National Park with special emphasis on charophytes
The investigations were carried out in four peat-pits located in the northwestern part of Bubnów Swamp, situated within the Polesie National Park. It is a fen created on chalk ground. The analysis of physicochemical factors of water and qualitative and quantitative analysis of macrophytes of the peat-pits were carried out in the vegetation season in 2008 and 2009. The aim of investigations was to determine the water habitat conditions and composition of plant associations especially charophytes in peat-pits of protected areas. In the investigated peat-pits there was a slight defferentiation of physical and chemical properties of water. The investigated peat-pits are naturally and floristically valuable hydrogenic ecosystems in various stages of succession. The peat-pits are characterized by occurrence of endangered species of charophytes: Chara hispida and Chara intermedia, as well as a protected species such as Nymphaea candida and Chara globularus as vulnerable species.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the development of rush zones in small lakes and the utilization and condition of surrounding lands. Generally, the width of the helophyte zone increased along shores with gentle slopes (>5˚) that were covered with vegetation. The most favourable conditions for rush development and spread were along sloped areas bordered by farmlands and rural developments. In addition, pasturelands that developed on top of peat accumulation adjacent to lakes were found to facilitate the development of rushes. We observed a positive effect of anthropogenic development, especially agriculture and infrastructure, on stem density and total biomass of Phragmites austalis populations in the lakes studied. However, individual stem biomass of plants was lower. In different parts of the studied lakes, macrophyte distribution patterns were influenced by environmental conditions including nutrient availability, wind exposure, and bottom slope. The poorest macrophyte communities were found in areas within the lakes that were shaded by trees growing on neighboring banks and where slopes were forested rush zones were absent altogether.
The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze), and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń). The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS) software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.
The Wieprz-Krzna Canal, built in 1961, is one of the longest in Poland (142 km). Although the drainage construction was intended to revitalize the region of wetlands and peat-bogs of the West Polesie, it caused large hydrological changes. Research on catchments of three natural lakes and three retention reservoirs involved cartographic analysis using photointerpretation, as well as the Braun-Blanquet method. In the studied area, between 1939 and 2016 the length of rivers and ditches increased more than three times. Macrophytes covered about 20-27% of the natural lakes water surface, whereas in retention reservoirs the coverage was 12-15.5%. Also a greater diversity of macrophytes occurred in natural lakes. In retention reservoirs it was restricted to only emerged macrophytes.
Joanna Sender, Weronika Maślanko, Monika Różańska-Boczula and Magda Garbowski
Aquatic vegetation greatly impacts lake functions. Forest ecosystems surrounding lakes are effective protection zone of lakes and their associated flora and fauna. The presence of aquatic plants depends on many factors, including the chemical composition and acidity of water, the shape of the lake catchment, the angle of slope along shorelines and the management of surrounding lands. Natural ecosystems throughout Eastern Europe are threatened by anthropogenic activities. Aquatic systems and bogs are particularly sensitive to disturbances. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of land management, forest type and stand age on aquatic plant colonisation within lakes as well as to quantify and qualify the structure of macrophyte communities within two lakes, Płotycze Sobiborskie and Orchowe, located in the Sobibór Landscape Park in western Poland. Even though there were few bogs within the catchment areas and lake buffer zones, where they did occur they had the greatest effect on macrophyte presence. The results of this research indicate that in the absence of anthropogenic disturbances midforest water-bog complexes are relatively stable systems and preserve their natural character. The applied multi-criteria evaluation of macrophytes in the studied lakes and their surrounding buffer zones and catchment areas allowed the lakes to be characterised as lakes with a good ecological status.
In urban ecosystems, typically created by humans, it is very difficult to balance the needs of all its inhabitants. Significance of nature in the cities has been perceived since the ancient times. In the city there are many problems associated with the lack or sometimes excess of water, as well as poor quality. In times of water resources decline and their progressive degradation, each aquatic ecosystem should be investigated because of its values. Among the aquatic ecosystems occurring in the cities, there are: river valleys, natural lakes, water reservoirs, as well as small bodies of water. The aim of this study is to raise public awareness about the role of aquatic ecosystems in cities with different sizes and with a varying number of inhabitants. All respondents in each type of city felt the need of water presence in their surroundings and treated it as a necessary part of the proper functioning, as well as a place for rest and recreation. However, lack of management and a poor ecological status of them were noticed
The paper presents the multi-functionality of the river valley in ecological, social and economic terms. The biotic and abiotic elements, as well as aspects of its protection and environmental threats were characterized. Successively, based on above research, public participation and SWOT analysis, a variant design was carried out. Finally, the concept of the development of the Bystrzyca River valley and its surroundings was developed, mainly aimed at the protection, enrichment, development of recreation and fulfill social needs in accordance with principles of landscape design and sustainable development.