Nordic co-operation is renowned throughout the world and perceived as the collaboration of a group of countries which are similar in their views and activities. The main pillars of the Nordic model of co-operation are the tradition of constitutional principles, activity of public movements and organisations, freedom of speech, equality, solidarity, and respect for the natural environment. In connection with labour and entrepreneurship, these elements are the features of a society which favours efficiency, a sense of security and balance between an individual and a group. Currently, the collaboration is a complex process, including many national, governmental and institutional connections which form the “Nordic family”.
Waldemar Szendera, Karolina Czerwieńska and Joanna Kuczera
This paper presents a potential monetary assessment of natural habitats based on a method worked out in 2003 in the Czech Republic. The assessment was prepared for the reclaimed flooded mining pit in Suszec. The analysis was focused on three variants of real and potential habitats from the reclaimed land. Natural values of the flooded mining pit have undergone changes due to afforestation reclamation activities. It has been calculated that the value of natural habitats expressed in numbers will decrease by 70.7% in comparison to the area prior to reclamation, whereas the monetary value of the natural habitats will decrease by 10,319,519.00 PLN. An important element of the assessment includes recognition, diagnosis and evaluation of the actual state of natural habitats by preparing a detailed inventory and determining the most valuable species of plants and animals as well as landscape values. Unfortunately, at present in Poland there is no clear and explicit method of estimating the assessment of lost natural value that would allow approximating the monetary value of a given terrain and determine the most favourable direction of its management. Application of monetary assessment of natural habitats requires its adjustment to Polish conditions. Due to the similarity of climate and geomorphological conditions in Central Europe, it is possible to adopt elements of habitat assessments used in the Czech Republic and in Germany. Natural habitat assessment will provide a solid base for preventing conflicts caused by the needs of economic development at the expense of local protection of the natural environment. As a result, it will be easier to achieve an agreement between different parties in the investment process, and, moreover, the assessment method will prevent additional financial losses, generated during the process of achieving functionality by the habitats. Correct analysis of the values of natural habitats may significantly reduce losses in the natural environment and aid in the selection and choice of the most relevant reclamation method.
The purpose of the present study is to examine the life satisfaction levels in two groups of women - with excess body weight and normal weight and the relationship between life satisfaction and the level of social competences The study involved 70 women (35 with excess body weight and 35 with normal weight). The Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire and Social Approval Questionnaire were used in the study. The study revealed no significant differences in terms of overall life satisfaction among women with excess weight and normal weight and a number of other relationships between the variables (like the importance of the need for social approval for the assessment of life satisfaction in those who have excess body weight).
Wettability of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) by aqueous solutions of binary mixtures composed of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) with polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij 35) was considered on the basis of the measured values of contact angle and surface tension. It was shown that the value of the critical surface tension of PTFE surface wetting at the studied system (23.5 mN/m), does not depend on the concentration and composition of the binary mixtures of studied surfactants in water, and it was higer than the surface tension of PTFE (20.2 mN/m). The best wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) by studied aqueous solutions of binary surfactants mixtures occurs at the mixtures concentration corresponding to the critical micelle concentration of their solutions.
The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater.
It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.
Ewa Sokołowska, Lidia Zabłocka-Żytka, Sylwia Kluczyńska and Joanna Wojda-Kornacka
Our aim was to find out what university students expect of mental health promotion. 610 young people were asked a few open questions. 81% of respondents expressed an interest in mental health promotion activities. They associated promotional activities with physical, social and/or emotional health care. Basically, these positive expectations are in agreement with the biopsychosocial model of mental health formulated by the WHO (2005). No interest in the idea of promotion (11%) is caused by the erroneous assumption that mental health promotion is targeted at people with mental disorders; therefore, a mentally healthy person does not benefit from participating in such a programme.
Stanisław Chmiel, Stanisław Hałas, Tomasz Pieńkos, Sławomir Głowacki, Ewa Maciejewska, Żaneta Polkowska, Joanna Sposób and Andrzej Trembaczowski
The concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved in water (CO2(aq)) was measured in consecutive phases of the hydrological cycle. Its potentially possible degassing from groundwaters to the atmosphere was also assessed. The research was conducted in the area of occurrence of carbonate rocks of the Lublin Upland and Roztocze (SE Poland). The results of the measurements of CO2(aq) concentration varied as follows (min-max/mean): precipitation waters < 1-3/2.6 mg · dm−3, soil waters 3-50/14.2 mg · dm−3, groundwaters 10-70/30.3 mg · dm−3, river waters < 1-21/7.6 mg · dm−3. The measure of degassing of carbon dioxide from groundwaters to the atmosphere was a decrease in CO2(aq) concentration in fluvial outflow. Based on the value of groundwater outflow from the Lublin Upland and Roztocze, the annual carbon dioxide emission from waters to the atmosphere was calculated at a level of 50 thousand Mg · year−1. This value constitutes approximately 1% of anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide originating from environmentally harmful industrial plants in the Lublin province.
The use of sublimation thermal transfer printing onto cotton is not widely practiced because of the lack of disperse
dyes affinity for cellulose fibres. The studies were performed onto polymer application on cotton fibres in order to
achieve the ability to absorption of sublimating dyes and thus the possibility of making printouts onto cotton. The
following parameters were evaluated: whiteness degree after impregnation, the relative strength of colours of the
obtained printouts, test washing fastness, and dry and wet rubbing fastness.
The aim of the study is to to examine the motivations for participating in a half-marathon among two groups of runners, local running in their place of residence and sports tourists, and to evaluate the differences between them. With the increase in the popularity of ‘running tourism’ the question becomes important as it encourages runners to engage in physical activity outside their everyday place of residence. Freyer and Gross’s (2002) four types of motivation for participation in sports events was the basis for the development of the author’s questionnaire. The empirical research (sample size=346) then recognized these motives for participation. The article also presents a review of the literature on such motivations in mass running events. Results indicate that both group of respondents, residents of the place where the half-marathon was organised and sports tourists, have different forms of motivation. The greatest relevance for sports tourists turned out to be motivation for sensation-seeking but for local runners it was the result, and this confirms that sports tourists travel generally in search for strong emotions and sensations.
Dorota Huzarska, Joanna Huzarska, Leonard Pędziński, Paweł Sowa and Andrzej Szpak
Introduction. Transplantation surgery, involving transplantation of cells, tissues and organs, constitutes a common medical practice that saves the lives of a great number of patients.
Aim. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the legal regulations regarding transplantation that are in practice inside three European countries: Poland and Germany - EU Member States - and Switzerland - a non-EU state. The considerations made herein are meant to find an answer to the question whether the provisions of law regarding transplantation in the specified European countries regulate the legal situation of the donor and the recipient in a similar manner.
Material and methods. The paper is based on the following source documents: The Cell, Tissue and Organ Recovery, Storage and Transplantation Act of July 1, 2005; The Act on Donation, Recovery and Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of November 5, 1997 (Transplantation Act - TPG); Federal Act on Transplantation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of October 8, 2004. In our work, we applied two methods, the first being comparative, and the second being dogmatic-legal. The latter consists of analyzing the provisions regarding transplantation as found within the three selected European countries.
Results and Discussion. Under Polish, German and Swiss law alike, the recovery of cells, tissues and organs is allowed from an adult, who, under the Polish and German Acts, has full capacity to enter into legal transactions, and who, under the Swiss Act - is an adult who is mentally competent. Of note is that a minor might only be a donor in ex vivo transplantation provided that precisely specified requirements are met. Of additional note is that, under the German and Swiss Acts, recovery of tissues and organs from a human cadaver donor is allowed only if this person gave consent for such recovery prior to their death; under the Polish Act, this is allowed unless the deceased person expressed their objection when alive.
Conclusion. As far as ex vivo transplantation is concerned, the legal solutions regarding transplantation in Poland, Germany and Switzerland regulate the legal situation of the donor and the recipient of a transplant in a similar way, although there are a few significant differences. As for ex mortuo transplantations - the legal solutions applied in each country greatly differ.