A poly(hydroxybutyl citrate) p(HBC) was obtained. The product compound produced in the solution during esterification, was added to rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR). The amount of petrochemical polyol in the foams was decreased in favor of the p(HBC) from 0.1 to 0.5 equivalent. The foams were foamed in two ways: with distilled water (W foams) and with Solkane 365/227 (S foams). The examination results of both foam series were compared. They showed that the foams foamed with water have higher softening temperature than the foams foamed with solkane. The retention values for both foam series are around 91–95%, and water absorption in the range of 0.7–3.2%. The anisotropy coefficient did not exceed 1.08 (the lowest value being 1.01).
New polyols were synthesized with 2-hydroxypropane-1.2.3-tricarboxylic acid and butane-1,4-diol (1.4-BD). The synthesis was performed using different catalysts in the amount of 0.1%. Used catalyst: Tyzor TPT, tin(II) acetate, sulfuric(IV) acid. The fourth reaction was conducted without the use of a catalyst. The polyols’ properties were evaluated with regards to the usefulness in rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) foams (acid value, density, pH and solubility, FTIR spectra). Based on the research, it was evaluated that only the polyol synthesized using Tyzor TPT (E6) was useful in production of rigid PUR-PIR foams. Its hydroxyl number was 496 mgKOH/g and its viscosity was about 14 552 mPa · s. A series of five foams P6.1–P6.5 was produced with this polyol. Rigid foams test results indicated that the amount of this compound in the foam substantially affects its compressive strength, density and their retention. The foams have low brittleness values.
A new bio-polyol based on white mustard oil (Synapis alba) and 2,2′-mercaptodiethanol (2,2′-MDE) was obtained. The synthesis was carried out by two-step method. In the first stage, the double bond of the unsaturated fatty acid residues was oxidized, and in the second step the epoxy rings were opened with 2,2’-MDE. The properties of the obtained bio-polyol for application as raw material in polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR) - hydroxyl number, acid number, density, viscosity, pH, water content, FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR were investigated. Based on the obtained results, foaming formulations containing 0 to 0.6 R of the new bio-polyol were prepared. Significant impact of bio-polyol on apparent density, compressive strength, brittleness, flammability, water absorption and thermal conductivity of polyurethane composites were noted. Modified foam had better functional properties than reference foam e.g. lower brittleness, better thermal insulation properties and better fire resistance.