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Joanna Zarębska and Monika Michalska

Abstract

Ecological innovations (eco-innovations) can be considered from the standpoint of innovations implemented within the company in order to: improve organizational and management methods, production process, products, marketing, external relations with the environment and society. They are also a chance for professional development (the so-called green jobs) or can be viewed in terms of consumer interest. Consumer interest in ecoinnovations, and subsequently growth in sales of products and services, influence the effectiveness of innovations and worthiness of their further funding. Eco-innovations, however, are not limited only to the company and the services, but also the quality of life and environment protection, inevitably followed by the present and future sustainable development. In the paper all the above has been presented with GUS, PARP, UE and the Division of Environment and Public Sector Economy Management (University of Zielona Góra) studies. The research involved eco-innovations in companies and indicated the directions and obstacles of their implementation in Poland.

Open access

Joanna Nowak-Michalska

Abstract

The paper deals with problems of legal translation from Polish into Spanish. It analyses selected terms related to contracts which are regulated in the Polish Civil Code and their possible translations into Spanish. In order to find adequate translation equivalents the author applies the method of parametrisation of legal terms (along with the method of comparing parallel texts and the skopos theory). The parametrisation of legal terms helps to systematically characterise and compare them and thus to identify differences in the meanings of the source language and target language terms and to choose the best equivalents. It may also facilitate the selection of a technique of providing translation equivalents for non-equivalent or partially equivalent terms. Parametrisation is understood as determining for each analysed term a set of properties it shows with respect to translationally relevant parameters – one property out of each parameter. A parameter is conceived of as a set of homogeneous properties.

Open access

Joanna Wessely-Szponder, Tomasz Szponder, Ryszard Bobowiec and Joanna Michalska

Abstract

Introduction: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are a large group of innate immune effectors, which apart from antimicrobial activity show immunomodulative properties. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of autologous growth factors and is used for stimulation of bone and soft tissue healing. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of PRP and AMP extract on ovine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on ovine macrophages (Mfs) previously stimulated with LPS or dexamethasone and then with preparations of PRP or AMP. Following activation of the Mfs their morphological and functional features were assessed. Results: The study revealed pro-inflammatory influence of both examined preparations on Mfs cultures on the basis of morphology, ROS generation and arginase activity. Both preparations enhanced the pro-inflammatory response of cultured Mfs. Conclusion: This activity may intensify the antimicrobial action of Mfs, however, in cases of excessive and prolonged inflammation the use of these preparations should be limited.

Open access

Grażyna Chodorowska, Małgorzata Michalska-Jakubus, Joanna Bartosińska, Agnieszka Gerkowicz, Michał Adamczyk and Dorota Krasowska

Abstract

Introduction. Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive imaging method that allows cutaneous microcirculation to be analyzed. During the last decades, a diagnostic and prognostic potential of nailfold capillaroscopy (NVC) has been gaining increasing appreciation. The main indications include Raynaud phenomenon and scleroderma spectrum diseases, however the usefulness of this technique is also suggested in a variety of non-rheumatic diseases.

Aim. To assess capillaroscopic patterns in systemic scleroderma (SSc), psoriasis (PV), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia. To evaluate serum levels of several endothelial and angiogenic markers, and their relation to capillaroscopic pattern.

Material and methods. There were evaluated 295 patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc), psoriasis (PV), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia, as well as age- and sex-matched controls, were examined. In each subject, NVC was performed and serum concentration levels of several angiogenic markers.

Results. In SSc three NVC patterns: early, active and late were distinguished. Angiopoietin-2 concentrations were higher and andothelial microparticles were lower in patients with late NVC pattern. We found several differences between the NVC pattern in PV and PsA. No correlations between NVC pattern and serum levels of angiogenic markers were revealed. In AA, we distinguished both normal and abnormal NVC patterns, although the normal patterns were more frequent. Branching capillaries and features of neoformation were often present in patients with the abnormal pattern. In androgenetic alopecia, the normal NVC pattern was most frequently present, however, we found several statistically significant capillarosopic alterations, like branching capillaries, features of neoformation and altered distribution of capillaries.

Discussion and Conclusions. Serum levels of Ang-2 and EMPs may reflect capillary damage in SSc. NVC pattern varies between PV and PsA patients. The presence of abnormal NVC patterns in alopecia patients might show the role of disturbances in microcirculation in the diseases. Further studies are required to confirm the hypothesis.