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Joanna Lemanowicz and Agata Bartkowiak

Abstract

The paper presents the research results for the soils sampled from the area located in the eastern part of the Chodzieskie Lakes, between the Middle Noteć River Valley and the Wełna River Valley, the right tributary of the Warta River. The research involved 7 soil samples from the surface horizons, allocated to the cultivation of various plant species (cereals and vegetable crops). The following were determined in the soil material: the content of phytoavailable forms of selected heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe and Mn, active and available to plants phosphorus against the activity of selected oxydo-reduction and hydrolytic enzymes. The soil under the vegetable crops showed a very high richness in phosphorus available to plants, which must have been related to an intensive fertilisation. There were identified relatively low contents of the available forms of the heavy metals investigated, the fact that points to their natural content in soil, which triggered the inhibition of neither the oxydo-reduction nor hydrolytic enzymes.

Open access

Joanna Lemanowicz

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research examining the soil content of total and available phosphorus (PE-R), taking into consideration the activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases. For this study, three soil profiles were sampled in Arenosols at a distance of 0.8, 2.0 and 2.5 km from a nitrogen fertiliser manufacturer, Anwil S.A. A control profile was taken from the Tuchola Forest. The soils’ reaction ranged from acidic to very acidic. The humus content in the surface horizons of the sampled profiles was average (1.26–2.61%). The lowest PE-R content was found in the profile taken closest (0.8 km – profile I) to the factory. The distribution index (DI) calculated for available phosphorus pointed towards moderate accumulation, whilst at the same time, the availability index (IM) confirmed low availability, especially in profile I. The activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases, which are the enzymes responsible for phosphorus transformation in the soil, varied depending on the distance from the nitrogen works. The inhibition of alkaline phosphomonoesterases and the stimulation of acid esterases, which were both connected to the examined soil reaction, were observed. The activity of phosphatases, as well as total and available phosphorus content, decreased steeply along the soil profiles. Furthermore, a significant correlation between organic carbon and the activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases (r = 0.94, p < 0.05 and r = 0.67, p < 0.05, respectively), as well as between the content of PE-R and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.67, p < 0.05) were recorded. The results suggest the need for further research and monitoring of the Arenosols in the forest affected by the nitrogen works.

Open access

Joanna Lemanowicz, Anetta Siwik-Ziomek and Jan Koper

Abstract

The paper demonstrates the results of research on the mobility of phosphorus and sulphur in winter wheat fertilized with several rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 t ha-1) of farmyard manure and nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N ha-1). The content of these nutrients was related to the activity of acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase in a Haplic Luvisol. The highest content of available phosphorus (91.58 mg P kg-1) was reported in the soil amended with farmyard manure at the rate of 60 t ha-1. The content of sulphates (VI) in the Haplic Luvisol was high and, on average, equal to 25.22 mg kg-1. The activity of acid phosphatase in the soil increased with increasing mineral nitrogen rates. The highest content of sulphates (VI) and the lowest activity of arylsulphatase were identified at the nitrogen rate of 40 kg N ha-1. The mobility of phosphorus in winter wheat was the highest when farmyard manure at the rate of 60 t ha-1 and mineral nitrogen at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 were incorporated into the soil. The greatest translocation of sulphur was reported at the high farmyard manure rates (40, 60 and 80 t ha-1) and the nitrogen rate of 80 kg N ha-1.

Open access

Agata Bartkowiak and Joanna Lemanowicz

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to assess the effect of forest fire on the content of total and available forms of zinc, copper, lead, nickel and cadmium, as well as the activity of catalase in soil. The study was performed directly (2012) and a year after the fire (2013). The fire had a significant effect on the content of those heavy metals in surface horizons, however, it did not result in their rapid growth. The concentrations of total forms of metals did not exceed the norms provided for in Regulation of the Polish Minister of the Environment. The soil samples analysed can be considered unpolluted with those metals. The availability coefficients calculated showed an unfavourable higher availability of lead and cadmium over zinc and copper. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of fire on the activity of catalase. Resistance of soil (RS) for catalase demonstrated lower values in the year 2012 as compared with 2013 (except for B soil). The calculated values of time index (TI) pointed to the activation of the enzyme a year after the fire. The Ward clustering method facilitated determining similarities between the sites in two research years (2012 and 2013) with the selected soil parameters. With the PCA method a negative effect of fire was identified.

Open access

Anetta Siwik-Ziomek, Joanna Lemanowicz and Jan Koper

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of varying rates of FYM (0, 20, 40, 60 Mg ha−1) and nitrogen N0, N1, N2, and N3 on the content of sulphate sulphur (VI) and the activity of arylsulphatase, which participates in the transformations of this element in Haplic Luvisol. The study report is based on a long-term field experiment with two different crop rotations: A – recognized as exhausting the humus from soil and B – recognized as enriching the soil with humus. During the cultivation of the plants, the soil was sampled four times from corn and a red clover cultivar and grass. The FYM fertilization rate for which the highest arylsulphatase activity and the content of sulphates were identified was 60 Mg ha−1. An inhibitory effect of high rates (90 and 135 kg N ha−1) of ammonium nitrate on the arylsulphatase activity was also observed. A significant correlation between the content of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphates and the arylsulphatase activity was recorded. The investigation on the effect of combined application of farmyard manure and mineral nitrogen fertilization on the activity of arylsulphatase participating in the sulphur cycling was launched to examine the problem in detail.

Open access

Anetta Siwik-Ziomek, Małgorzata Brzezińska, Joanna Lemanowicz, Jan Koper and Paweł Szarlip

Abstract

This study was conducted on the soils originating from a reclamation area of the former sulphur mine in Tarnobrzeg, Poland. Soil was sampled 16 years after the completion of mining works with the open-pit method at Machów, as well as 7 years after sulphur mining via the ‘smelting’ method in the Jeziórko mine was abandoned. Several biological parameters were examined: soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and the activity of rhodanese and arylsulphatase enzymes taking part in sulphur transformation within the site’s soils. The soils showed a high total sulphur and sulphates content. The SO4 2- constituted a large fraction of total sulphur, in some cases, exceeding 80% or even 95% of total sulphur. The soil pH decreased due to the degrading effects of sulphur mining. In the soils studied from the locations with the lowest soil pH value, no activity of arylsulphatase was reported and the activity of rhodanese was lowest. The highest soil respiration values were recorded from the 0-5 cm layer in the areas covered with forest vegetation. A high soil respiration value at the waste heap at Machów wherein a very high concentration of Stot and SO4 2- was observed can be due to the ability of fungi to produce hyphal strands and to survive unfavourable conditions.