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  • Author: Joanna Krukowska x
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Introduction: Due to their immunostimulatory properties TLR ligands are used prophylactically to protect against a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens in mammals. Knowledge of the molecular and functional aspects of TLRs is essential for a better understanding of the immune system and resistance to diseases in birds. For that reason, this study attempted to determine the impact of TLR21 stimulation by its synthetic ligand (CpG ODN, class B) on the chicken immune system.

Material and Methods: Sixty embryonated chicken eggs were randomly allocated into three groups (control and two experimental groups). On day 18 of embryonic development, chickens in one experimental group were administered in ovo a low dose of CpG ODN and the birds of the second experimental group were given a high dose of the ligand. Spleens were collected at 1, 2, 5, and 10 days post-hatching (dph) for analysis of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 expression using qRT-PCR.

Results: Significant differences were observed in mRNA expression levels of all the measured cytokines associated with the modulation and regulation of the immune response at different time points.

Conclusion: The obtained data clearly demonstrate that immune response induction takes place after in ovo administration of class B CpG ODN, and that the ligand has the ability to induce cytokine responses in neonatal chicken spleen.


The paper focuses on the institutional solutions adopted in various Polish metropolitan regions due to the requirement to create structures facilitating the operation of Integrated Territorial Investment (ITI) in the 2014–2020 EU financial perspective. This phenomenon is analysed in the light of the process of the launching and functioning of metropolitan cooperation and of the concept of Europeanization. Our considerations are based on the assumption that past attempts to institutionalize metropolitan cooperation influence the process of the creation and functioning of ITI cooperation. Our research has confirmed this proposition. We found various reactions to the top-down incentive in all of the investigated metropolitan regions. In general four main types of situation are identified depending on past metropolitan cooperation and its relation to the ITI institutions. On the national level an interesting “double top-down” pressure was discovered, as the EU guidelines have been made much stricter by the Polish government, turning an incentive for local actors into a must. Finally, Integrated Territorial Investment has enlivened metropolitan governance in Poland, which is interesting to follow in the future, especially as it has no connection to other national regulations proposed for metropolitan regions.


Based on a survey of inter-municipal unions (IMUs) and inter-municipal companies (IMComs) in Poland, this article identifies the most common motives for launching inter-municipal cooperation and the most frequently reported outcomes. The declared motives are compared with the perceived outcomes, with a particular focus on mismatch situations: disappointments (when the expected gain was not realised) and unexpected outcomes (when the reported outcomes exceeded initial expectations). The research shows that the latter are reported more frequently than the former. The most frequently indicated motives for cooperation were related to financial benefits and included cost reduction and applying for additional funding. The “defensive” motive of IMC – cooperation to maintain the status quo – is practically absent. The data also suggests that cooperation can be perceived as “a value in its own right”.