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Open access

Joanna Kowalska and Justyna Winnicka

Abstract

The purpose of this study was a diagnosis of the attitudes of students of Warsaw universities towards people with disabilities and the variables which impacted on these attitudes. Additionally, we examined the relationship between the need for social approval and explicit attitudes towards people with disabilities. The study focused on two components of attitudes: behavioural (measured by preferable social distance - SDSB) and cognitive (tested with a semantic differential scale - SDSO). 318 students completed a survey including a demographic sheet, a social desirability scale, the SDSB and SDSO. The results indicate that students expressed positive attitudes towards people with disabilities. The impact of such variables as gender, the type of disability and the need for social approval was registered and were differentiated in regard to components of attitudes. The results are discussed with reference to earlier research and cues for further studies are suggested.

Open access

Joanna Kowalska, Joanna Szczepańska-Gieracha and Joanna Rymaszewska

Zaburzenia funkcji poznawczych i zespoły otępienne - problem fizjoterapii geriatrycznej

W artykule przedstawiono podstawowe przyczyny i objawy zaburzeń funkcji poznawczych i zespołów otępiennych oraz proste testy przesiewowe stosowane w celu ich rozpoznania. Jest to niezbędna wiedza, jaką powinien posiadać personel medyczny, w tym fizjoterapeuci pracujący z osobami w podeszłym wieku. Znajomość podstaw z zakresu psychopatologii zaburzeń otępiennych pozwala lepiej zrozumieć i interpretować zachowanie pacjenta, ułatwia komunikowanie się z nim, pozwala dostosować proces usprawniania do możliwości poznawczych seniora oraz zmniejsza natężenie negatywnych emocji ze strony opiekunóow i terapeutów.

Open access

Joanna Kowalska

Streszczenie

Wprowadzenie: Zjawisko wypalenia zawodowego postrzegane jest jako poważny problem społeczny powiązany z obciążającym charakterem pracy opartej na kontaktach z innymi ludźmi. Fizjoterapeuci stanowią jedną z grup zawodowych szczególnie narażonych na różnorodne stresujące sytuacje, które mogą prowadzić do wypalenia. Jednakże w literaturze mało uwagi poświęca się tej grupie w porównaniu z innymi pracownikami służby zdrowia. Brak jest badań na temat występowania zjawiska wypalenia zawodowego wśród polskich fizjoterapeutów. W związku z tym celem niniejszej pracy było rozpoznanie nasilenia objawów wypalenia w tej grupie zawodowej oraz identyfikacja czynników, które mogą sprzyjać występowaniu tego zjawiska.

Materiał i metoda: Badanie imało charakter kwestionariuszowy. Wzięło w nim udział 64 fizjoterapeutów. którzy wypełniali ankietę z pytaniami dotyczącymi pracy zawodowej oraz kwestionariusz wypalenia zawodowego C. Masłach (MBI) w polskiej adaptacji T.Pasikowskiego.

Wyniki: Rezultaty omawianego badania wskazują, że poziom wypalenia zawodowego wśród polskich fizjoterapeutów jest niższy niż wśród przedstawicieli innych grup zawodowych na- rażonych na występowanie stresu zawodowego. Ponadto na podstawie przeprowadzonego badania można wskazać czynniki związane z wykonywanym zawodem fizjoterapeuty, które predysponują do rozwoju objawów wypalenia zawodowego.

Wnioski: Uzyskane wyniki mogą stanowić podstawię do dalszych badań dotyczących efektywnego przeciwdziałania wypaleniu zawodowemu wśród fizjoterapeutów.

Open access

Joanna Kowalska, Bartłomiej Kajdas and Tomasz Zaleski

Abstract

Carbonate-rich soils are characterized by great diversity in content of carbonate and non-carbonate mineral substances in soil substrate which largely influences soil properties. The study presents the analysis results of four soil profiles located at the area of Pieniny National Park. The aim of this study was to characterize and classify the soils developed from the mixture of carbonate and carbonate-rich rock material, formerly classified as pararendzinas. It was achieved by determination of morphological, physical, and chemical properties, as well as mineralogical composition of selected carbonate-rich soils occurring in the Polish part of the Pieniny Mts. Soils were classified as typical chernozemic rendzina (P1), typical eutrophic brown soils (P2, P4), as well as typical pararendzina (P3) according to Polish Soil Classification (2011).

The parent material of studied soils P1, P2 and P4 were slope covers, with a dominant share of sandstone and minor share of limestone, whereas soil P3 was formed from variegated shale cut with multiple calcite veins. Soils were characterized by stable aggregate structure: crumby, angular blocky and subangular blocky. They were medium or strong skeletal, mostly with loam texture with great share of silt fraction. CaCO3 content in genetic horizons ranged from 0.0 to 703.0 g·kg-1. The reaction of studied soils was from weakly acidic to alkaline. Analysed soils were characterized by very high base saturation. Among determined exchangeable cations, Ca2+ ions had the biggest share in all analysed profile. High base saturation, as well as high content of calcium carbonate was accompanied by content of organic matter and percentage content of clay fraction. Taking into consideration determined chemical and physical properties, it can be found that investigated soils were influenced by not only the in-situ weathering material but also by rock material which have been transported and deposited as a result of slope processes. Furthermore, the lack or lower content of CaCO3 in surface and middle part of analysed soil profiles was most likely a result of the impoverishment of rock material during the transport on the slope.

Open access

Agnieszka Ciurzyńska, Joanna Cichowska, Hanna Kowalska, Kinga Czajkowska and Andrzej Lenart

Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of osmotic dehydration conditions on the properties of osmotically pre-treated dried apples. The scope of research included analysing the most important mass exchange coefficients, i.e. water loss, solid gain, reduced water content and water activity, as well as colour changes of the obtained dried product. In the study, apples were osmotically dehydrated in one of two 60% solutions: sucrose or sucrose with an addition of chokeberry juice concentrate, for 30 and 120 min, in temperatures of 40 and 60°C. Ultrasound was also used during the first 30 min of the dehydration process. After osmotic pre-treatment, apples were subjected to innovative convective drying with the puffing effect, and to freeze-drying. Temperature and dehydration time increased the effectiveness of mass exchange during osmotic dehydration. The addition of chokeberry juice concentrate to standard sucrose solution and the use of ultrasound did not change the value of solid gain and reduced water content. Water activity of the dried apple tissue was not significantly changed after osmotic dehydration, while changes in colour were significant.

Open access

Ryszard Mazurek, Joanna Beata Kowalska, Paweł Zadrożny, Michał Gąsiorek and Halina Kozak

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate rendzinas diversity on the area of the Ojców National Park (ONP), southern Poland. Moreover, the paper aims to identify the relation between relief and soil cover slope position and its influence on classification as well as the occurrence of lithological discontinuity. The studied soils were classified as brown and chernozemic rendzinas. Rendzinas in the area of the ONP are located mainly in the middle slope position where Upper Jurassic limestones regolith is mixed with loess sediments. This situation leads to vertical heterogeneity of soil texture (and formation of rendzinas with lithological discontinuity) within the soil profile. Surface horizons were mainly characterized by silty texture while in deeper horizons there was a more clay-like texture, which was the result of weathering Jurassic limestones located in deeper parts of soil profile. In turn, uniform shallow rendzinas occurred only on exposed rocks composed of limestones, where loess cover was absent. The character of ONP’s soils is also the result of parent material heterogeneity conditioned by long-term changes e.g. denudation processes and/or weathering. In order to assess soil heterogeneity, ‘lithological discontinuity indices’ as well as ‘uniformity values’ have been applied.

Open access

Joanna Kucharska-Gaca, Emilia Kowalska and Michalina Dębowska

Abstract

Over the years, due to genetic selection, improvement of the characteristics of laying and meat poultry with less feed consumption per kilogram of body weight gain has been achieved (FCR). As the productivity of poultry increased, the demand of embryos for nutrients changed. However, the chemical composition of an egg has remained practically unchanged, and therefore, it began providing the embryos with suitable substances with the help of in ovo technology. Improvements in hatching were achieved through the administration of fructose, sucrose and grape seed extract (GSE), while the weight of a one-day-old chick is affected by the injection of amino acids with glucose and magnesium. In addition, amino acids and carbohydrates applied to an egg have contributed to an increase in the activity of digestive enzymes and maturation of the intestine. In connection with early stimulation of the intestinal tract of broiler chicks, they obtained higher weight gain. Supplementation with vitamins positively affects the increase of birds’ immunity and body weight at the end of breeding. On the other hand, the injection of an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) influenced the growth and development of muscle tissue during the first weeks of life.

Open access

Przemysław Pokorny, Joanna Pokorny, Wojciech Dobicki, Magdalena Senze and Monika Kowalska-Góralska

Abstract

The study was conducted on the Biała Lądecka River which is a mountain river. It is similar to many European mountain rivers in terms of hydromorphology and catchment management. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconcentration factors of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn) in Ranunculus aquatile (L.) Dumort., Fontinalis antipyretica (L. ex Hedw.), and Lemanea fluviatilis (L.) C.Ag. The content of metals in water, sediment, and submerged plants was determined. The metal concentrations in plants can be arranged as follows: Hg < Cd < Cr < Ni < Cu < Pb <Zn. The highest concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cr, and Cu were observed in F. antipyretica, but the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were in R. aquatile. L. fluviatilis always contained the least amounts of heavy metals. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were lowest in L. fluviatilis and highest in F. antipyretica. Among the analyzed metals, plants accumulated the highest amount of Zn, and the least of Hg. The BCFs for Zn were from 24111 (in L. fluviatilis) to 97574 (in R. aquatile), and BCFs for Hg were from 29 (in L. fluviatilis) to 226 (in F. antipyretica).

Open access

Małgorzata Wawer, Marzena Rachwał and Joanna Kowalska

Abstract

Despite the existence of various methods aimed at protecting the environment from the negative influence of roads, there is a lack of adequate techniques for monitoring and reducing the spread of roadside pollution into the air and soils. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of noise barriers (sound walls) on the dispersal and soil deposition of solid pollutants from car emissions, based on both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, trace elements analyses, and platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) content determinations were performed on soil samples collected in the vicinity of various types of noise barrier. Previous investigations have shown that most traffic emissions are deposited in the close vicinity of roads (up to 10 m), with pollution levels decreasing with increasing distance from the road edge. However, the results of the present study indicate that this distribution is disturbed in areas in which noise barriers are located. Moreover, additional soil enrichment with trace elements was observed at approx. 10-15 m behind the barriers. The spatial distribution of trace elements contents in the tested soil samples corresponded to the magnetic susceptibility values. High Fe, Zn, Mn and Pb levels were observed adjacent to noise barriers composed of sawdust concrete and steel panels.

Open access

Anna Bogacz, Donata Deka-Pawlik, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Monika Karasiewicz, Radosław Kujawski, Aleksandra Kowalska, Aleksandra Chałas, Bogusław Czerny, Edmund Grześkowiak and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz

Abstract

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) gene is ATP-dependent transporting protein which is localizated in the cell membrane. P-gp is expressed mainly in organs with the secretory functions and its physiological role concerns tissue protection against xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein is involved in the permeability barriers of the blood-brain, blood-placenta directly protecting these organs. It participates in the transport of many drugs and other xenobiotics affecting their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The high P-gp activity in the cell membranes of cancer tissue is a major cause of lack of effectiveness of chemotherapy. Hence, the methods which could increase the sensibility of these pathological cells to cytostatics are still being searched. In the experimental studies it was shown that natural plant substances may have an effect on the expression level and activity of P-glycoprotein. Hypericum perforatum, Ginkgo biloba and Camellia sinensis increase P-gp activity while curcumin from Curcuma longa, piperine and silymarin inhibit this protein. Taking into account a wide substrate spectrum of P-gp, application of our knowledge on interactions of herbals and synthetic drugs should be considered in order to improve drug impact on different tissues.